Abstract

Degenerate (single-color) and nondegenerate (two-color) time-resolved Z-scan techniques, with femtosecond time resolution, have been implemented to measure the magnitude and dynamical processes of the optical nonlinearities of ZnSe. In the time-resolved Z-scan spectra a reversal of sign in the refractive-index change Δn as a function of time delay was observed. A bound electronic contribution with a resolution limited response (~200 fs) gave rise to a positive Δn at zero time delay, whereas a free-carrier contribution resulted in a negative Δn at longer time delays. The free-carrier contribution to Δn has two initial rapid relaxation components with time constants of a few picoseconds and a few tens of picoseconds, respectively. The long-lived carriers also contributed to a slow relaxation component in Δn on a nanosecond time scale.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Y. Wang, G. Horsburgh, P. Thompson, I. Hauksson, J. T. Mullins, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 857 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1995

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, J. Simpson, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 589 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

S. Y. Wang, G. Horsburgh, P. Thompson, I. Hauksson, J. T. Mullins, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 857 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991);M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 17, 258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hatchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1985

1984

T. F. Heinz, S. L. Palfrey, K. B. Eisenthal, Opt. Lett. 9, 395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979

Buller, G. S.

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, J. Simpson, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 589 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Canto-Said, E. J.

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cavenet, B. C.

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, J. Simpson, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 589 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cavenett, B. C.

S. Y. Wang, G. Horsburgh, P. Thompson, I. Hauksson, J. T. Mullins, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 857 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, C. B.

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991);M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 17, 258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eisenthal, K. B.

T. F. Heinz, S. L. Palfrey, K. B. Eisenthal, Opt. Lett. 9, 395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991);M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 17, 258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009 (1994);J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Proc. SPIE 1692, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hatchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hatchings, D. C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hatchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hauksson, I.

S. Y. Wang, G. Horsburgh, P. Thompson, I. Hauksson, J. T. Mullins, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 857 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

S. L. Palfrey, T. F. Heinz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 674 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, S. L. Palfrey, K. B. Eisenthal, Opt. Lett. 9, 395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Horsburgh, G.

S. Y. Wang, G. Horsburgh, P. Thompson, I. Hauksson, J. T. Mullins, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 857 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

R. K. Jain, M. B. Klein, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), p. 365;T. F. Tsay, B. Bendow, S. S. Mitra, Phys. Rev. B 8, 2688 (1973).

Klein, M. B.

R. K. Jain, M. B. Klein, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), p. 365;T. F. Tsay, B. Bendow, S. S. Mitra, Phys. Rev. B 8, 2688 (1973).

Krauss, T. D.

T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1739 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991);M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 17, 258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Massa, J. S.

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, J. Simpson, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 589 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Mullins, J. T.

S. Y. Wang, G. Horsburgh, P. Thompson, I. Hauksson, J. T. Mullins, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 857 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Palfrey, S. L.

S. L. Palfrey, T. F. Heinz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 674 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, S. L. Palfrey, K. B. Eisenthal, Opt. Lett. 9, 395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prior, K. A.

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, J. Simpson, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 589 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Wang, G. Horsburgh, P. Thompson, I. Hauksson, J. T. Mullins, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 857 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009 (1994);J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Proc. SPIE 1692, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hatchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, J.

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, J. Simpson, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 589 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

Thompson, P.

S. Y. Wang, G. Horsburgh, P. Thompson, I. Hauksson, J. T. Mullins, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 857 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009 (1994);J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Proc. SPIE 1692, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hatchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, A. C.

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, J. Simpson, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 589 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, S. Y.

S. Y. Wang, G. Horsburgh, P. Thompson, I. Hauksson, J. T. Mullins, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 857 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weaire, D.

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

Wise, F. W.

T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1739 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Y. Wang, G. Horsburgh, P. Thompson, I. Hauksson, J. T. Mullins, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 857 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991);M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 17, 258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Krauss, F. W. Wise, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1739 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, J. Simpson, K. A. Prior, B. C. Cavenet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 589 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hatchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. K. Jain, M. B. Klein, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), p. 365;T. F. Tsay, B. Bendow, S. S. Mitra, Phys. Rev. B 8, 2688 (1973).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the single-color time-resolved Z-scan experiment. BS, beam splitter. The pump beam can be optically delayed with respect to the probe beam by use of a computer-controlled translation stage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-beam Z-scan spectra for ZnSe excited at λ = 790 nm and an excitation intensity of 0.95 GW/cm2. Curve (a), closed-aperture divided by open-aperture result; curve (b), closed-aperture result; curve (c), open-aperture result. From the fit we obtained n2 = +(2.3 ± 0.8) × 10-11 esu and β = 2.7 ± 0.3 cm/GW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-color time-resolved Z-scan spectra for ZnSe with orthogonally polarized pump and probe beams at λ = 790 nm. Curve fitting (solid curve) with a single exponential function gives a relaxation time constant of τ = 4.0 ns. Inset: a change in sign from positive to negative in Δn was observed near the zero time delay.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pump-beam-induced Z-scan spectra at different time delays (t).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two-color time-resolved Z-scan for ZnSe with the pump beam at λ = 395 nm and the probe beam at λ = 790 nm. Curve fitting (solid curve) with two exponential functions gives relaxation time constants of τ1 = 7 ps and τ2 = 63 ps. Inset: time-resolved spectrum near zero time delay shown in detail; note that no change in sign was observed.

Equations (1)

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Δ T p v ( t ) = T ( t , z p ) T op ( t , z p ) T ( t , z v ) T op ( t , z v ) ,

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