Abstract

A method for measuring the nonlinear refractive index of optical fibers with an error of less than 5% is demonstrated. The technique is based on measuring the nonlinear phase shift experienced by a dual-frequency beat signal, permitting a simple, highly sensitive, accurate, repeatable, and easily automated measurement procedure and sampling. Measurements of the nonlinear coefficient in standard telecommunication, dispersion-shifted, and a number of dispersion-compensated fibers are presented.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. S. Kim, R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. W. Quoi, Opt. Lett. 19, 257 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, N. Tanahashi, Electron. Lett. 30, 1171 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kato, Y. Suetsugu, M. Takagi, E. Sasaoka, M. Nishimura, Opt. Lett. 20, 988 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Kato, Y. Suetsugu, M. Nishimura, Opt. Lett. 20, 2279 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Artiglia, E. Ciaramella, B. Sordo, Electron. Lett. 31, 1012 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Prigent, J.-P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 21, 1559 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. H. Stolen, in Optical Fiber Communications, S. E. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 125–150.
  9. S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, G. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Namihira, Electron. Lett. 30, 262 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Grüner-Nielsen, A. Boskovic, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’96), Oslo, Norway, September 15–19, 1996.

1996

1995

1994

Y. Namihira, Electron. Lett. 30, 262 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. W. Quoi, Opt. Lett. 19, 257 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, N. Tanahashi, Electron. Lett. 30, 1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. Prigent, J.-P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, G. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Artiglia, M.

M. Artiglia, E. Ciaramella, B. Sordo, Electron. Lett. 31, 1012 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, G. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boskovic, A.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, A. Boskovic, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’96), Oslo, Norway, September 15–19, 1996.

Chernikov, S. V.

S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 21, 1559 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Grüner-Nielsen, A. Boskovic, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’96), Oslo, Norway, September 15–19, 1996.

Ciaramella, E.

M. Artiglia, E. Ciaramella, B. Sordo, Electron. Lett. 31, 1012 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evangelides, S. G.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, G. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, G. P.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, G. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, A. Boskovic, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’96), Oslo, Norway, September 15–19, 1996.

Hamaide, J.-P.

L. Prigent, J.-P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

Kim, K. S.

Miyata, A.

Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, N. Tanahashi, Electron. Lett. 30, 1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, G. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Namihira, Y.

Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, N. Tanahashi, Electron. Lett. 30, 1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Namihira, Electron. Lett. 30, 262 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

Prigent, L.

L. Prigent, J.-P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Quoi, K. W.

Reed, W. A.

Sasaoka, E.

Sordo, B.

M. Artiglia, E. Ciaramella, B. Sordo, Electron. Lett. 31, 1012 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

K. S. Kim, R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. W. Quoi, Opt. Lett. 19, 257 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stolen, in Optical Fiber Communications, S. E. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 125–150.

Suetsugu, Y.

Takagi, M.

Tanahashi, N.

Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, N. Tanahashi, Electron. Lett. 30, 1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 21, 1559 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Grüner-Nielsen, A. Boskovic, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’96), Oslo, Norway, September 15–19, 1996.

Electron. Lett.

Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, N. Tanahashi, Electron. Lett. 30, 1171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Artiglia, E. Ciaramella, B. Sordo, Electron. Lett. 31, 1012 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Namihira, Electron. Lett. 30, 262 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, G. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett.

L. Prigent, J.-P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. H. Stolen, in Optical Fiber Communications, S. E. Miller, A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 125–150.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, A. Boskovic, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’96), Oslo, Norway, September 15–19, 1996.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical SPM spectrum generated by the propagation of a beat signal in a fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Plot showing a typical measurement of the nonlinear phase shift against the power together with a linear fit and (b) histogram of several measurements of the nonlinear coefficient for a particular DCF.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of All Results Obtained and Some Relevant Parameters for the Fibers Investigated

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( t , L ) = 2 a cos ( Δ ω t ) exp ( i ω 0 t ) exp [ i φ SPM cos 2 ( Δ ω t ) ] , φ SPM = 2 ω 0 c n 2 A eff L eff P ¯ ,
I 0 I 1 = J 0 2 ( φ SPM / 2 ) + J 1 2 ( φ SPM / 2 ) J 1 2 ( φ SPM / 2 ) + J 2 2 ( φ SPM / 2 ) ,
Δ φ SPM k 2 Δ ω 0 2 L < < 1 ,
n 2 = n 2 ( SiO 2 ) + K ( GeO 2 ) X GeO 2 + K ( F ) X F ,

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