Abstract

We report the densification of fused silica as a function of exposure to pulsed 193-nm excimer-laser irradiation. Defining a dose as the number of pulses N times the square of fluence I per pulse, we find that densification follows a universal function of dose, a × (NI2)b, where a and b can vary somewhat according to glass preparation. Densification is measured with interferometry and birefringence, interpreted with a finite-element elastic model. Wave-front distortion for a typical photolithographic lens element in typical use conditions is described.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Primak, R. Kampwirth, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5651 (1968); W. Primak, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2572 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. B. Norris, E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3876 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, E. H. Barsis, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1131 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 167 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 136, 163 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Fiori, R. A. B. Devine, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2972 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Rothschild, D. J. Erlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. M. Schermerhorn, Proc. SPIE 1835, 70 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Schenker, P. Schermerhorn, W. G. Oldham, J. Vac. Sci. 12, 3275 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, P. Schermerhorn, D. Fladd, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2428, 458 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2440, 118 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Schenker, F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2726, 698 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. F. Borrelli, C. Smith, D. C. Allan, T. P. Seward, “Densification of fused silica under 193 nm excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
  14. G. Williams, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 131–133, 1 (1991), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  15. A stretched exponential function, sometimes referred to Kohlrausch kinetics, has been used to predict a power law dependence for radiation-induced production of defects, observed as E′ centers, in silica. See V. A. Mashkov, W. R. Austin, L. Zhang, R. G. Leisure, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2926 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

R. Schenker, F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2726, 698 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A stretched exponential function, sometimes referred to Kohlrausch kinetics, has been used to predict a power law dependence for radiation-induced production of defects, observed as E′ centers, in silica. See V. A. Mashkov, W. R. Austin, L. Zhang, R. G. Leisure, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2926 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, P. Schermerhorn, D. Fladd, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2428, 458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2440, 118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. Schenker, P. Schermerhorn, W. G. Oldham, J. Vac. Sci. 12, 3275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. M. Schermerhorn, Proc. SPIE 1835, 70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 136, 163 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 131–133, 1 (1991), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1989

M. Rothschild, D. J. Erlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

C. Fiori, R. A. B. Devine, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2972 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1977

T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, E. H. Barsis, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1131 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 167 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Norris, E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3876 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. Primak, R. Kampwirth, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5651 (1968); W. Primak, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2572 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

N. F. Borrelli, C. Smith, D. C. Allan, T. P. Seward, “Densification of fused silica under 193 nm excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Austin, W. R.

A stretched exponential function, sometimes referred to Kohlrausch kinetics, has been used to predict a power law dependence for radiation-induced production of defects, observed as E′ centers, in silica. See V. A. Mashkov, W. R. Austin, L. Zhang, R. G. Leisure, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2926 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barsis, E. H.

T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, E. H. Barsis, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1131 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

N. F. Borrelli, C. Smith, D. C. Allan, T. P. Seward, “Densification of fused silica under 193 nm excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Dellin, T. A.

T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, E. H. Barsis, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1131 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Devine, R. A. B.

C. Fiori, R. A. B. Devine, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2972 (1986).
[CrossRef]

EerNisse, E. P.

C. B. Norris, E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3876 (1974).
[CrossRef]

E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 167 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Eichner, L.

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, P. Schermerhorn, D. Fladd, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2428, 458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2440, 118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erlich, D. J.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Erlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fiori, C.

C. Fiori, R. A. B. Devine, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2972 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fladd, D.

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, P. Schermerhorn, D. Fladd, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2428, 458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 136, 163 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kampwirth, R.

W. Primak, R. Kampwirth, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5651 (1968); W. Primak, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2572 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Leisure, R. G.

A stretched exponential function, sometimes referred to Kohlrausch kinetics, has been used to predict a power law dependence for radiation-induced production of defects, observed as E′ centers, in silica. See V. A. Mashkov, W. R. Austin, L. Zhang, R. G. Leisure, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2926 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashkov, V. A.

A stretched exponential function, sometimes referred to Kohlrausch kinetics, has been used to predict a power law dependence for radiation-induced production of defects, observed as E′ centers, in silica. See V. A. Mashkov, W. R. Austin, L. Zhang, R. G. Leisure, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2926 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, C. B.

C. B. Norris, E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3876 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Oldham, W. G.

R. Schenker, F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2726, 698 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, P. Schermerhorn, D. Fladd, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2428, 458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2440, 118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, P. Schermerhorn, W. G. Oldham, J. Vac. Sci. 12, 3275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Piao, F.

R. Schenker, F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2726, 698 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Primak, W.

W. Primak, R. Kampwirth, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5651 (1968); W. Primak, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2572 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rothschild, M.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Erlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ruller, J. A.

J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 136, 163 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schenker, R.

R. Schenker, F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2726, 698 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2440, 118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, P. Schermerhorn, D. Fladd, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2428, 458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, P. Schermerhorn, W. G. Oldham, J. Vac. Sci. 12, 3275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schermerhorn, P.

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, P. Schermerhorn, D. Fladd, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2428, 458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, P. Schermerhorn, W. G. Oldham, J. Vac. Sci. 12, 3275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schermerhorn, P. M.

P. M. Schermerhorn, Proc. SPIE 1835, 70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seward, T. P.

N. F. Borrelli, C. Smith, D. C. Allan, T. P. Seward, “Densification of fused silica under 193 nm excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Shaver, D. C.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Erlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.

N. F. Borrelli, C. Smith, D. C. Allan, T. P. Seward, “Densification of fused silica under 193 nm excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Tichenor, D. A.

T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, E. H. Barsis, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1131 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Vaidya, H.

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, P. Schermerhorn, D. Fladd, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2428, 458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2440, 118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vaidya, S.

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2440, 118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, P. Schermerhorn, D. Fladd, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2428, 458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G.

G. Williams, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 131–133, 1 (1991), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

A stretched exponential function, sometimes referred to Kohlrausch kinetics, has been used to predict a power law dependence for radiation-induced production of defects, observed as E′ centers, in silica. See V. A. Mashkov, W. R. Austin, L. Zhang, R. G. Leisure, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2926 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Erlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

W. Primak, R. Kampwirth, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 5651 (1968); W. Primak, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2572 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Norris, E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3876 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Dellin, D. A. Tichenor, E. H. Barsis, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1131 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 167 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 136, 163 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 131–133, 1 (1991), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci.

R. Schenker, P. Schermerhorn, W. G. Oldham, J. Vac. Sci. 12, 3275 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

C. Fiori, R. A. B. Devine, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2972 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A stretched exponential function, sometimes referred to Kohlrausch kinetics, has been used to predict a power law dependence for radiation-induced production of defects, observed as E′ centers, in silica. See V. A. Mashkov, W. R. Austin, L. Zhang, R. G. Leisure, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2926 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

P. M. Schermerhorn, Proc. SPIE 1835, 70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, P. Schermerhorn, D. Fladd, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2428, 458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, L. Eichner, H. Vaidya, S. Vaidya, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2440, 118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schenker, F. Piao, W. G. Oldham, Proc. SPIE 2726, 698 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

N. F. Borrelli, C. Smith, D. C. Allan, T. P. Seward, “Densification of fused silica under 193 nm excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OPD versus exposure plotted as log(OPD, 633-nm waves) versus log[NI2, pulses × (mJ/cm2)2] for number of pulses N and pulse fluence I; pulse fluences are 20 (diamonds), 32 (circles), and 43 (squares) mJ/cm2. Inset: Data from Fig. 4 of Ref. 12 plotted in similar fashion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OPD versus NI2 for single-sample, multiple values of pulse fluence I: 21 (squares), 32 (diamonds), and 27 (circles) mJ/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Estimate of OPD under a 10-year life condition, 1010 pulses at 0.5 mJ/cm2: (a) stepper lens geometry, (b) exposure pattern, (c) optical path difference in 633-nm waves.

Equations (1)

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( ρ - ρ 0 ) ( ρ eq - ρ 0 ) = 1 - exp [ - ( N I 2 ) b ] ,

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