Abstract

We have developed a method for encoding phase and amplitude in microscopic computer-generated holograms (microtags) for security applications. An 8 × 8 cell phase-only and an 8 × 8 cell phase-and-amplitude microtag design has been exposed in photoresist by the extreme-ultraviolet (13.4-nm) lithography tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Each microtag measures 80 μm × 160 μm and contains features that are 0.2 μm wide. Fraunhofer zone diffraction patterns can be obtained from fabricated microtags without any intervening optics and compare favorably with predicted diffraction patterns.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Zoreda, J. M. Otón, Smart Cards (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1994).
  3. D. A. Tichenor, in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Atwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 89.
  4. K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc Handbook, 2nd ed. (A-R Editions, Madison, Wisc., 1992).
  5. B. R. Brown, A. W. Lohmann, Appl. Opt. 5, 967 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 10.
  7. R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).
  8. J. R. Wendt, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. M. 87185 (personal communication, 1996).
  9. M. T. Gale, K. Knop, R. Morf, Proc. SPIE 1210, 83 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Li, A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, J. Bengtsson, Opt. Lett. 21, 1516 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, A. Larsson, N. Eriksson, M. Hagberg, J. Bengtsson, Opt. Lett. 21, 1516 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, R. Morf, Proc. SPIE 1210, 83 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

1966 (1)

Bengtsson, J.

Brown, B. R.

Descour, M. R.

W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, N.

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, R. Morf, Proc. SPIE 1210, 83 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gaskill, J. D.

J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 10.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Hagberg, M.

Knop, K.

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, R. Morf, Proc. SPIE 1210, 83 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kravitz, S. H.

W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krenz, K. D.

W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

Li, M.

Lohmann, A. W.

Morf, R.

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, R. Morf, Proc. SPIE 1210, 83 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Otón, J. M.

J. L. Zoreda, J. M. Otón, Smart Cards (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1994).

Pohlmann, K. C.

K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc Handbook, 2nd ed. (A-R Editions, Madison, Wisc., 1992).

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Stulen, R. H.

W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sweatt, W. C.

W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tichenor, D. A.

W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Atwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 89.

Underwood, J. H.

W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Warren, M. E.

W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

J. R. Wendt, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. M. 87185 (personal communication, 1996).

Zoreda, J. L.

J. L. Zoreda, J. M. Otón, Smart Cards (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1994).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Proc. SPIE (2)

W. C. Sweatt, M. R. Descour, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Kravitz, M. E. Warren, R. H. Stulen, D. A. Tichenor, J. H. Underwood, K. D. Krenz, Proc. SPIE 2689, 170 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, R. Morf, Proc. SPIE 1210, 83 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. L. Zoreda, J. M. Otón, Smart Cards (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1994).

D. A. Tichenor, in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, F. Zernike, D. T. Atwood, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 89.

K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc Handbook, 2nd ed. (A-R Editions, Madison, Wisc., 1992).

J. R. Wendt, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. M. 87185 (personal communication, 1996).

J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 10.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Phase and (b) amplitude encoding schemes. In (b), the grating lines are horizontal. See text for details.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microtag readout system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Far-field patterns for the 8 × 8 phase-and-amplitude microtag. The simulated far-field pattern is shown in (a). The far-field diffraction pattern formed by a real microtag is shown in (b). Both images have been adjusted in terms of brightness and contrast settings for print quality. The image in (b) has been rotated to counter a misalignment in the readout system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far-field patterns for the 8 × 8 phase-only microtag. The simulated far-field pattern is shown in (a). The measured diffraction pattern formed by a real microtag is shown in (b).

Metrics