Abstract

We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the 210Fr 9S1/2 energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P3/2 is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S1/2 state and the 7S1/2 ground state to be 25 671.021 ± 0.006 cm−1.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. V. Andreev, V. I. Mishin, V. S. Letokhov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2190 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, P. A. Voytas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. C. Noecker, B. P. Masterson, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 310 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2866 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Walhout, H. J. L. Megens, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. A 48, R879 (1993); M. Walhout, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2843 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Ph. N. Georgiades, E. S. Polzik, H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 1474 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. W. Fox, S. L. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, J. H. Marquardt, H. G. Robinson, Opt. Lett. 18, 1456 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Gesternkorn, J. Vergès, J. Chevillard, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molécule d’Iode 10,000–14,000 cm−1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1978), Pt. I.
  10. V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. H. Bergeman, Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, N.Y. 11794-3800 (personal communication, 1993).
  12. Y.-K. Kim, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899 (personal communication, 1993).
  13. J. H. Marquardt, H. G. Robinson, L. Hollberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1384 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Lett. A 95, 230 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, J. Phys. B 17, 1953 (1984).
  17. C. E. Theodosiou, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 39, 1210 (1994); C. E. Theodosiou, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Ohio, 43606 (personal communication, 1993).

1996

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, P. A. Voytas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2866 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Marquardt, H. G. Robinson, L. Hollberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

C. E. Theodosiou, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 39, 1210 (1994); C. E. Theodosiou, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Ohio, 43606 (personal communication, 1993).

Ph. N. Georgiades, E. S. Polzik, H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 1474 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

R. W. Fox, S. L. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, J. H. Marquardt, H. G. Robinson, Opt. Lett. 18, 1456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Walhout, H. J. L. Megens, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. A 48, R879 (1993); M. Walhout, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2843 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. C. Noecker, B. P. Masterson, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 310 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Andreev, V. I. Mishin, V. S. Letokhov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, J. Phys. B 17, 1953 (1984).

1983

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Lett. A 95, 230 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, S. V.

Arnold, E.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bergeman, T. H.

T. H. Bergeman, Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, N.Y. 11794-3800 (personal communication, 1993).

Borchers, W.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Büttgenbach, S.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chevillard, J.

S. Gesternkorn, J. Vergès, J. Chevillard, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molécule d’Iode 10,000–14,000 cm−1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1978), Pt. I.

Coc, A.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Duong, H. T.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dzuba, V. A.

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, J. Phys. B 17, 1953 (1984).

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Lett. A 95, 230 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Flambaum, V. V.

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, J. Phys. B 17, 1953 (1984).

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Lett. A 95, 230 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fox, R. W.

Georgiades, Ph. N.

Gesternkorn, S.

S. Gesternkorn, J. Vergès, J. Chevillard, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molécule d’Iode 10,000–14,000 cm−1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1978), Pt. I.

Ghosh, A.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, P. A. Voytas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbert, S. L.

Gwinner, G.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, P. A. Voytas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2866 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

Juncar, P.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Kim, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899 (personal communication, 1993).

Kimble, H. J.

Lermé, J.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

Liberman, S.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lievens, P.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, J. H.

Masterson, B. P.

M. C. Noecker, B. P. Masterson, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 310 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Megens, H. J. L.

M. Walhout, H. J. L. Megens, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. A 48, R879 (1993); M. Walhout, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2843 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishin, V. I.

Mueller, A. C.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Neu, W.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Neugart, R.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Noecker, M. C.

M. C. Noecker, B. P. Masterson, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 310 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oates, C. W.

C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2866 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orozco, L. A.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, P. A. Voytas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellarin, M.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pesnelle, A.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pinard, J.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Polzik, E. S.

Robinson, H. G.

Rolston, S. L.

M. Walhout, H. J. L. Megens, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. A 48, R879 (1993); M. Walhout, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2843 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simsarian, J. E.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, P. A. Voytas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprouse, G. D.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, P. A. Voytas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sushkov, O. P.

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, J. Phys. B 17, 1953 (1984).

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Lett. A 95, 230 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Theodosiou, C. E.

C. E. Theodosiou, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 39, 1210 (1994); C. E. Theodosiou, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Ohio, 43606 (personal communication, 1993).

Thibault, C.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Touchard, F.

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vergès, J.

S. Gesternkorn, J. Vergès, J. Chevillard, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molécule d’Iode 10,000–14,000 cm−1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1978), Pt. I.

Vialle, J. L.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, K. R.

C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2866 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voytas, P. A.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, P. A. Voytas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walhout, M.

M. Walhout, H. J. L. Megens, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. A 48, R879 (1993); M. Walhout, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2843 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wendt, K.

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

M. C. Noecker, B. P. Masterson, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 310 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, A.

M. Walhout, H. J. L. Megens, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. A 48, R879 (1993); M. Walhout, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2843 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.

C. E. Theodosiou, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 39, 1210 (1994); C. E. Theodosiou, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Ohio, 43606 (personal communication, 1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

E. Arnold, W. Borchers, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, J. Lermé, P. Lievens, W. Neu, R. Neugart, M. Pellarin, J. Pinard, J. L. Vialle, K. Wendt, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, J. Phys. B 23, 3511 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, J. Phys. B 17, 1953 (1984).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. B

A. Coc, C. Thibault, F. Touchard, H. T. Duong, P. Juncar, S. Liberman, J. Pinard, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, S. Büttgenbach, A. C. Mueller, A. Pesnelle, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 163, 66 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Lett. A 95, 230 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, O. P. Sushkov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 3454 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Walhout, H. J. L. Megens, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. A 48, R879 (1993); M. Walhout, A. Witte, S. L. Rolston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2843 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. E. Simsarian, A. Ghosh, G. Gwinner, L. A. Orozco, G. D. Sprouse, P. A. Voytas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3522 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Noecker, B. P. Masterson, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 310 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2866 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Gesternkorn, J. Vergès, J. Chevillard, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molécule d’Iode 10,000–14,000 cm−1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1978), Pt. I.

T. H. Bergeman, Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, N.Y. 11794-3800 (personal communication, 1993).

Y.-K. Kim, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899 (personal communication, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of energy levels of 210Fr that are relevant for trapping and two-photon excitation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fluorescence at 423 and 433 nm versus 851 nm laser frequency detuning (100-MHz scan). (b) Trap fluorescence at 718 nm versus 851-nm laser frequency detuning (100-MHz scan). The zero of the scan corresponds to 11 746.978 ± 0.003 cm−1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of ab initio predictions of Refs. 10 and 15 and quantum defect interpolations of Refs. 11, 12, and 17 with the experimental measurement of the 7S1/2 –9S1/2 energy interval.

Metrics