Abstract

Most confocal microscopes do not produce images in real time with nonlaser light sources. The tandem scanning confocal microscope does produce such images but, because the pinhole apertures of the Nipkov disk must be placed far apart to reduce cross talk between neighboring pinholes, only 1% or less of the light available for imaging is used. We show that, by using aperture correlation techniques and relaxing the requirement to obtain a pure confocal image directly, one can obtain real-time confocal images with a dramatically increased (25% or even 50%) light budget.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).
  2. M. J. E. Golay, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 437 (1949).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Petran, M. Hadravsky, M. D. Egger, R. J. Galambos, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 661 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

1968

1949

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the confocal microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the optical system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-dimensional image of a transistor. The height projection image is combined with an autofocus image to provide surface rendering. A 50×/0.8 numerical aperture objective was used. The image field is 120 μm × 120 μm.

Equations (10)

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I ( x 2 ) = S ( x 1 ) D ( x 2 ) | h 1 ( x 0 + x 1 M ) × τ ( x 0 ) h 2 ( x 0 + x 2 M ) d x 0 2 d x 1 ,
I ( x i ) = | h 1 ( x ) h 2 ( x ) τ ( x - x i M ) d x | 2 ,
S ( x ) = D ( x ) = i = 1 N b i ( t ) δ ( x - x i ) ,
S ( x 1 ) D ( x 2 ) = i = 1 N j = 1 N b i ( t ) b j ( t ) δ ( x 1 - x i ) δ ( x 2 - x j ) ,
b i ( t ) b j ( t ) = δ i j ,
S ( x ) = D ( x ) = 1 2 i = 1 N [ b i ( t ) + 1 ] δ ( x - x i ) ,
S ( x 1 ) D ( x 2 ) = 1 4 i = 1 N j = 1 N [ b i ( t ) + 1 ] [ b j ( t ) + 1 ] × δ ( x 1 - x i ) δ ( x 2 - x j ) .
b i ( t ) = 0 ,
S ( x 1 ) D ( x 2 ) = 1 4 [ i = 1 N δ ( x 1 - x i ) δ ( x 2 - x i ) + i = 1 N j = 1 N δ ( x 1 - x i ) δ ( x 2 - x j ) ] .
S ( x ) = D ( x ) = 1 2 i = 1 N [ b i ( x r ) + 1 ] δ ( x - x i ) ,

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