Abstract

The near-field intensity distribution perpendicular to the light-propagation direction was measured by photochemical processes on conjugated-polymer thin films. The shape of the distribution is elliptical, with the long axis along the direction of the incident polarization. The results are compared with calculations based on the realistic tapered probe geometry. The asymmetry distribution is due to the simultaneous presence of horizontal and vertical electric fields in the near field.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 119, 283 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti, R. Moller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 29–33.
  6. T. Saiki, M. Ohtsu, K. Jang, W. Jhe, Opt. Lett. 21, 674 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Obermuller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, G. Abstreiter, presented at the Near-Field Optics-3 European Optical Society topical meeting, Brno, Czech Republic, 1995.
  8. E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, T. M. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 744 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T.-Y. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3420 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, B. R. Hsieh, Adv. Mater. 8, 573 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. S. Fann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 271 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Roberts, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2896 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944); C. J. Bouwkamp, Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321 (1950).
    [CrossRef]

1996

P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, B. R. Hsieh, Adv. Mater. 8, 573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Saiki, M. Ohtsu, K. Jang, W. Jhe, Opt. Lett. 21, 674 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 119, 283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Fann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, T. M. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

A. Lewis, K. Lieberman, Nature (London) 354, 214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

A. Roberts, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2896 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1944

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944); C. J. Bouwkamp, Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

C. Obermuller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, G. Abstreiter, presented at the Near-Field Optics-3 European Optical Society topical meeting, Brno, Czech Republic, 1995.

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944); C. J. Bouwkamp, Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielefeldt, H.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 119, 283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chichester, R. J.

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durig, U. T.

U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fann, W. S.

P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, B. R. Hsieh, Adv. Mater. 8, 573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Fann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Galvin, M. E.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, T. M. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, B. R.

P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, B. R. Hsieh, Adv. Mater. 8, 573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. H.

P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, B. R. Hsieh, Adv. Mater. 8, 573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K.

Jhe, W.

Karrai, K.

C. Obermuller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, G. Abstreiter, presented at the Near-Field Optics-3 European Optical Society topical meeting, Brno, Czech Republic, 1995.

Kim, J.-J.

T.-Y. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, A.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 119, 283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, G.

C. Obermuller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, G. Abstreiter, presented at the Near-Field Optics-3 European Optical Society topical meeting, Brno, Czech Republic, 1995.

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausch, G.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 119, 283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, K. Lieberman, Nature (London) 354, 214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, K.

A. Lewis, K. Lieberman, Nature (London) 354, 214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meiners, J. C.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 119, 283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. M.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, T. M. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 119, 283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti, R. Moller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 29–33.

Obermuller, C.

C. Obermuller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, G. Abstreiter, presented at the Near-Field Optics-3 European Optical Society topical meeting, Brno, Czech Republic, 1995.

Ohtsu, M.

Papadimitrakopoulos, F.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, T. M. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti, R. Moller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 29–33.

Roberts, A.

A. Roberts, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2896 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rohner, F.

U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, T. M. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saiki, T.

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegscheider, S.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 119, 283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C. C.

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P. K.

P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, B. R. Hsieh, Adv. Mater. 8, 573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, M.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, T. M. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zyung, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

P. K. Wei, J. H. Hsu, W. S. Fann, B. R. Hsieh, Adv. Mater. 8, 573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T.-Y. Zyung, J.-J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484 (1992); R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Wei, P. K. Wei, W. S. Fann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Roberts, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2896 (1989).
[CrossRef]

U. T. Durig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Lewis, K. Lieberman, Nature (London) 354, 214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 119, 283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944); C. J. Bouwkamp, Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Yan, L. J. Rothberg, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, T. M. Miller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

W. S. Fann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 271 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. Obermuller, K. Karrai, G. Kolb, G. Abstreiter, presented at the Near-Field Optics-3 European Optical Society topical meeting, Brno, Czech Republic, 1995.

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, in Photons and Local Probes, O. Marti, R. Moller, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 29–33.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission versus exposure photon flux measured in the near-field condition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission mode NSOM image and (b) corresponding topographic image. The bright region in (a) indicates where the sample surface is photo-oxidized. The dimensions of the scan area are 1 μm × 1 μm. The maximum vertical scale in ( b) is 50 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Contour plot of the photo-oxidation region in Fig. 2(a). Cross-sectional views of the contour plot (solid curves) and the corresponding Gaussian fit (dashed curves) on (b) the x axis and (c) the y (axis).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

NSOM images of both (a) writing and reading light polarized 45° to the x axis and (b) writing light polarized in the x direction and reading light polarized in the y direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated near-field patterns of (a) |Ex|, (b) |Ey|, (c) |Ez|, (d) |Ex|2 + |Ez|2 on the z = 5 nm plane. The tip end is at z = 0, and the tip size is 100 nm. The incident light is polarized along the x direction. The maximum vertical scale is 1, 0.12, and 0.64 for |Ex|, |Ey |, and |Ez|, respectively.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N ( x , y ) I ( u , v ) O ( x - u , y - v ) d u d v ,
O ( x , y ) I ( x , y ) , N ( x , y ) I ( u , v ) I ( x - u , x - v ) d u d v .

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