Abstract

We demonstrate a technique that utilizes surface-plasmon resonance to intensify the fluorescence produced by multiphoton excitation. By enhancing the electric field initially generated by the excitation laser light, the presence of plasmon resonance introduces a gain 90 times higher in the experimentally observed fluorescence intensity than that produced from total internal reflection fluorescence. We also analyze the enhancement efficacy of surface-plasmon resonance as a function of the excitation wavelength.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, J. R. Lakowicz, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 71 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. E. Benner, R. Dornhaus, R. K. Chang, Opt. Commun. 30, 145 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Raether, in Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, G. Höler, ed., Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 4–39.
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kano, S. Kawata, J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 42, 149 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Axelrod, T. P. Burghardt, N. L. Thompson, Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 247 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Schott-Glass Optical Glass Catalog, No. 3111j, BK7-517642 (Schott-Glass, Mainz, Germany, 1980).
  9. W. L. Wolfe, in Handbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Chap. 7, p. 7–150.
  10. G. Grynkiewicz, M. Poenie, R. Y. Tsien, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 3440 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  11. A. Wokaun, H. P. Lutz, A. P. King, U. P. Wild, R. R. Ernst, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 509 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, J. R. Lakowicz, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Kano, S. Kawata, J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 42, 149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

G. Grynkiewicz, M. Poenie, R. Y. Tsien, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 3440 (1985).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

D. Axelrod, T. P. Burghardt, N. L. Thompson, Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. Wokaun, H. P. Lutz, A. P. King, U. P. Wild, R. R. Ernst, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 509 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. E. Benner, R. Dornhaus, R. K. Chang, Opt. Commun. 30, 145 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Axelrod, D.

D. Axelrod, T. P. Burghardt, N. L. Thompson, Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bahlmann, K.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, J. R. Lakowicz, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

R. E. Benner, R. Dornhaus, R. K. Chang, Opt. Commun. 30, 145 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Burghardt, T. P.

D. Axelrod, T. P. Burghardt, N. L. Thompson, Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

R. E. Benner, R. Dornhaus, R. K. Chang, Opt. Commun. 30, 145 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dornhaus, R.

R. E. Benner, R. Dornhaus, R. K. Chang, Opt. Commun. 30, 145 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ernst, R. R.

A. Wokaun, H. P. Lutz, A. P. King, U. P. Wild, R. R. Ernst, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 509 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, I.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, J. R. Lakowicz, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grynkiewicz, G.

G. Grynkiewicz, M. Poenie, R. Y. Tsien, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 3440 (1985).
[PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, J. R. Lakowicz, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

H. Kano, S. Kawata, J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 42, 149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

H. Kano, S. Kawata, J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 42, 149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

King, A. P.

A. Wokaun, H. P. Lutz, A. P. King, U. P. Wild, R. R. Ernst, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 509 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, J. R. Lakowicz, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, H. P.

A. Wokaun, H. P. Lutz, A. P. King, U. P. Wild, R. R. Ernst, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 509 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Malak, H.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, J. R. Lakowicz, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poenie, M.

G. Grynkiewicz, M. Poenie, R. Y. Tsien, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 3440 (1985).
[PubMed]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, in Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, G. Höler, ed., Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 4–39.
[CrossRef]

Schrader, M.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, J. R. Lakowicz, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soini, A.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, J. R. Lakowicz, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, N. L.

D. Axelrod, T. P. Burghardt, N. L. Thompson, Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tsien, R. Y.

G. Grynkiewicz, M. Poenie, R. Y. Tsien, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 3440 (1985).
[PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wild, U. P.

A. Wokaun, H. P. Lutz, A. P. King, U. P. Wild, R. R. Ernst, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 509 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wokaun, A.

A. Wokaun, H. P. Lutz, A. P. King, U. P. Wild, R. R. Ernst, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 509 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, W. L.

W. L. Wolfe, in Handbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Chap. 7, p. 7–150.

Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. (1)

D. Axelrod, T. P. Burghardt, N. L. Thompson, Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 247 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

G. Grynkiewicz, M. Poenie, R. Y. Tsien, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 3440 (1985).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, J. R. Lakowicz, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 71 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Wokaun, H. P. Lutz, A. P. King, U. P. Wild, R. R. Ernst, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 509 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. (1)

H. Kano, S. Kawata, J. Spectrosc. Soc. Jpn. 42, 149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. E. Benner, R. Dornhaus, R. K. Chang, Opt. Commun. 30, 145 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Phys. (1)

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Raether, in Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, G. Höler, ed., Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 4–39.
[CrossRef]

Schott-Glass Optical Glass Catalog, No. 3111j, BK7-517642 (Schott-Glass, Mainz, Germany, 1980).

W. L. Wolfe, in Handbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughan, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Chap. 7, p. 7–150.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical configuration for excitation of surface-plasmon resonance. (b) Calculated result of the electric field distribution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for surface-plasmon-enhanced two-photon-excited fluorescence. ND, neutral-density filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental result of two-photon-excited fluorescence intensity versus incident angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated enhancing factor of electric-field-intensity versus two-photon-excitation wavelength. The enhancing factor for fluorescence is derived as a squared value of the factor shown in this figure.

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