Abstract

An interferometric technique was developed to characterize in real time the etching rate of glasses with <100-nm resolution. The interferometer can be used to help reveal the charge distribution in poled glass.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. K. Krieger, W. A. Lanford, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 102, 50 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, S. R. J. Brueck, Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Mukherjee, R. A. Myers, S. R. J. Brueck, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 665 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 110, 611 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Sauvain, J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 20, 243 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, Electron. Lett. 32, 452 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 21, 174 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 21, 186 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, Nature (London) 378, 699 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Regnier, Y. Serruys, A. Zemskoff, Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 185 (1986).
  14. H. Nielsen, D. Hackleman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 708 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

1996

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, Electron. Lett. 32, 452 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 21, 174 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 21, 186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

E. Sauvain, J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 20, 243 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, Nature (London) 378, 699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 110, 611 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Mukherjee, R. A. Myers, S. R. J. Brueck, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 665 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1988

U. K. Krieger, W. A. Lanford, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 102, 50 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. Regnier, Y. Serruys, A. Zemskoff, Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 185 (1986).

1983

H. Nielsen, D. Hackleman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 708 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1974

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Achete, C. A.

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Carlson, D. E.

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Freire, F. L.

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Giacometti, J. A.

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hackleman, D.

H. Nielsen, D. Hackleman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 708 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hang, K. W.

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 110, 611 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krieger, U. K.

U. K. Krieger, W. A. Lanford, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 102, 50 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kyung, J. H.

Lanford, W. A.

U. K. Krieger, W. A. Lanford, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 102, 50 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, Nature (London) 378, 699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

Leal Ferreira, G. F.

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lepienski, C. M.

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lesche, B.

W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, Nature (London) 378, 699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, Nature (London) 378, 699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R. A.

Nielsen, H.

H. Nielsen, D. Hackleman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 708 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Regnier, P.

P. Regnier, Y. Serruys, A. Zemskoff, Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 185 (1986).

Russell, P. St. J.

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 110, 611 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

Serruys, Y.

P. Regnier, Y. Serruys, A. Zemskoff, Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 185 (1986).

Sessler, G. M.

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. R.

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stockdale, G. F.

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zemskoff, A.

P. Regnier, Y. Serruys, A. Zemskoff, Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 185 (1986).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. G. Kazansky, A. R. Smith, P. St. J. Russell, G. M. Yang, G. M. Sessler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. H. Kyung, N. M. Lawandy, Electron. Lett. 32, 452 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

D. E. Carlson, K. W. Hang, G. F. Stockdale, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 295 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

H. Nielsen, D. Hackleman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 708 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

U. K. Krieger, W. A. Lanford, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 102, 50 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Lepienski, J. A. Giacometti, G. F. Leal Ferreira, F. L. Freire, C. A. Achete, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

W. Margulis, F. Laurell, B. Lesche, Nature (London) 378, 699 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Commun. 110, 611 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Chem. Glasses

P. Regnier, Y. Serruys, A. Zemskoff, Phys. Chem. Glasses 27, 185 (1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of interferometer: Detector D1 measures the interference signal from a poled region and detector D2 from an unpoled region of sample S. A dual-trace chart recorder plotted the output signals of the lock-in amplifiers, and an analog–digital converter was also used for data acquisition. BS, beam splitter; S, sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time evolution of the interference pattern of the poled region (top set of traces) and the unpoled region (bottom set of traces) of two SiO2 samples (a and b, respectively). The curves are not in phase at t = 0 (left) because of the positions of the apertures used in front of detectors D1 and D2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Depth etched as a function of etching time of sample a.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Etching rate as a function of depth into sample a. The abrupt feature between 5.5 and 6 μm below the anodic surface is probably associated with the edge of a depletion region.

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