Abstract

Large crystals of highly doped Cr4+:Ca2GeO4 were grown by a top-seeded solution growth method. Absorption and emission measurements for various crystal orientations have been performed. From the spectroscopic measurements, the only optically active center was identified as tetrahedrally coordinated Cr4+. Gain-switched, tunable laser operation of Cr4+:Ca2GeO4 crystal was demonstrated. Pulse energies of 0.4 mJ at 1.4 μm have been generated at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. Tunability over the 1348–1482-nm spectral range has been demonstrated.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Jia, H. Liu, S. Jaffe, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 43, 5234 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. R. Hoffman, J. Casas-Gonzales, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 44, 12589 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. R. Alfano, V. Petričević, “Tetravalent chromium (Cr4+) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers,”U.S. patent4,987,575 (January22, 1991).
  7. V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, M. R. Kokta, M. H. Randles, in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 2 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 238–240.
  8. L. Yang, V. Petričević, R. R. Alfano, in Novel Laser Sources and Applications, J. F. Becker, A. C. Tam, J. B. Gruber, L. Lam, eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 103–115.
  9. V. F. Zhuravlev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 59, 1145 (1948).
  10. A. K. Shirvinskaya, R. G. Grebenshchikov, N. A. Toropov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Negor. Mater. 2, 332 (1966).
  11. R. R. Alfano, V. Petričević, progress reports to the National Science Foundation, grant 9015486, 1991–1993.
  12. S. Kück, S. Hartung, K. Petermann, G. Huber, presented at the Tunable Solid State Laser Conference, Minsk, Belorus, 1994.
  13. T. Brunold, M. Herren, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, C. Albrecht, D. Reinen, J. Lumin. 60–61, 138 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. F. Hazenkamp, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, D. Reinen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 138 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 811 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Kück, K. Petermann, U. Pohlmann, G. Huber, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17323 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. F. Moulton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 125 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. F. Hazenkamp, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, D. Reinen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Kück, K. Petermann, U. Pohlmann, G. Huber, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17323 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Brunold, M. Herren, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, C. Albrecht, D. Reinen, J. Lumin. 60–61, 138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 811 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Jia, H. Liu, S. Jaffe, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 43, 5234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Hoffman, J. Casas-Gonzales, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 44, 12589 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1966 (1)

A. K. Shirvinskaya, R. G. Grebenshchikov, N. A. Toropov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Negor. Mater. 2, 332 (1966).

1948 (1)

V. F. Zhuravlev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 59, 1145 (1948).

Albrecht, C.

T. Brunold, M. Herren, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, C. Albrecht, D. Reinen, J. Lumin. 60–61, 138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 811 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, V. Petričević, “Tetravalent chromium (Cr4+) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers,”U.S. patent4,987,575 (January22, 1991).

V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, M. R. Kokta, M. H. Randles, in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 2 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 238–240.

L. Yang, V. Petričević, R. R. Alfano, in Novel Laser Sources and Applications, J. F. Becker, A. C. Tam, J. B. Gruber, L. Lam, eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 103–115.

R. R. Alfano, V. Petričević, progress reports to the National Science Foundation, grant 9015486, 1991–1993.

Andrauskas, D. M.

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anzai, H.

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brunold, T.

T. Brunold, M. Herren, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, C. Albrecht, D. Reinen, J. Lumin. 60–61, 138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Casas-Gonzales, J.

K. R. Hoffman, J. Casas-Gonzales, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 44, 12589 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gayen, S. K.

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grebenshchikov, R. G.

A. K. Shirvinskaya, R. G. Grebenshchikov, N. A. Toropov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Negor. Mater. 2, 332 (1966).

Güdel, H. U.

M. F. Hazenkamp, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, D. Reinen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Brunold, M. Herren, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, C. Albrecht, D. Reinen, J. Lumin. 60–61, 138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hartung, S.

S. Kück, S. Hartung, K. Petermann, G. Huber, presented at the Tunable Solid State Laser Conference, Minsk, Belorus, 1994.

Hazenkamp, M. F.

M. F. Hazenkamp, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, D. Reinen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Herren, M.

T. Brunold, M. Herren, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, C. Albrecht, D. Reinen, J. Lumin. 60–61, 138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, K. R.

K. R. Hoffman, J. Casas-Gonzales, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 44, 12589 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

S. Kück, K. Petermann, U. Pohlmann, G. Huber, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17323 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Kück, S. Hartung, K. Petermann, G. Huber, presented at the Tunable Solid State Laser Conference, Minsk, Belorus, 1994.

Jacobsen, S. M.

K. R. Hoffman, J. Casas-Gonzales, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 44, 12589 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jaffe, S.

W. Jia, H. Liu, S. Jaffe, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 43, 5234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jia, W.

W. Jia, H. Liu, S. Jaffe, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 43, 5234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kesper, U.

M. F. Hazenkamp, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, D. Reinen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Brunold, M. Herren, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, C. Albrecht, D. Reinen, J. Lumin. 60–61, 138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kokta, M. R.

V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, M. R. Kokta, M. H. Randles, in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 2 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 238–240.

Kück, S.

S. Kück, K. Petermann, U. Pohlmann, G. Huber, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17323 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Kück, S. Hartung, K. Petermann, G. Huber, presented at the Tunable Solid State Laser Conference, Minsk, Belorus, 1994.

Liu, H.

W. Jia, H. Liu, S. Jaffe, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 43, 5234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McCollum, T.

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

Oetliker, U.

M. F. Hazenkamp, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, D. Reinen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Brunold, M. Herren, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, C. Albrecht, D. Reinen, J. Lumin. 60–61, 138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

S. Kück, K. Petermann, U. Pohlmann, G. Huber, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17323 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Kück, S. Hartung, K. Petermann, G. Huber, presented at the Tunable Solid State Laser Conference, Minsk, Belorus, 1994.

Petricevic, V.

V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 811 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, V. Petričević, R. R. Alfano, in Novel Laser Sources and Applications, J. F. Becker, A. C. Tam, J. B. Gruber, L. Lam, eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 103–115.

R. R. Alfano, V. Petričević, “Tetravalent chromium (Cr4+) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers,”U.S. patent4,987,575 (January22, 1991).

V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, M. R. Kokta, M. H. Randles, in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 2 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 238–240.

R. R. Alfano, V. Petričević, progress reports to the National Science Foundation, grant 9015486, 1991–1993.

Pinto, A.

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pohlmann, U.

S. Kück, K. Petermann, U. Pohlmann, G. Huber, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17323 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Randles, M. H.

V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, M. R. Kokta, M. H. Randles, in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 2 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 238–240.

Reinen, D.

M. F. Hazenkamp, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, D. Reinen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Brunold, M. Herren, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, C. Albrecht, D. Reinen, J. Lumin. 60–61, 138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seas, A.

V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 811 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, M. R. Kokta, M. H. Randles, in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 2 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 238–240.

Shirvinskaya, A. K.

A. K. Shirvinskaya, R. G. Grebenshchikov, N. A. Toropov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Negor. Mater. 2, 332 (1966).

Thomas, L. M.

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Toropov, N. A.

A. K. Shirvinskaya, R. G. Grebenshchikov, N. A. Toropov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Negor. Mater. 2, 332 (1966).

Verdun, H. R.

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yamagishi, K.

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, Y.

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. Yang, V. Petričević, R. R. Alfano, in Novel Laser Sources and Applications, J. F. Becker, A. C. Tam, J. B. Gruber, L. Lam, eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 103–115.

Yen, W. M.

K. R. Hoffman, J. Casas-Gonzales, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 44, 12589 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Jia, H. Liu, S. Jaffe, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 43, 5234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhuravlev, V. F.

V. F. Zhuravlev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 59, 1145 (1948).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. F. Hazenkamp, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, D. Reinen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (1)

V. F. Zhuravlev, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 59, 1145 (1948).

Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Negor. Mater. (1)

A. K. Shirvinskaya, R. G. Grebenshchikov, N. A. Toropov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Negor. Mater. 2, 332 (1966).

J. Lumin. (1)

T. Brunold, M. Herren, U. Oetliker, H. U. Güdel, U. Kesper, C. Albrecht, D. Reinen, J. Lumin. 60–61, 138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

S. Kück, K. Petermann, U. Pohlmann, G. Huber, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17323 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Jia, H. Liu, S. Jaffe, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 43, 5234 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Hoffman, J. Casas-Gonzales, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, Phys. Rev. B 44, 12589 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. R. Alfano, V. Petričević, “Tetravalent chromium (Cr4+) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers,”U.S. patent4,987,575 (January22, 1991).

V. Petričević, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, M. R. Kokta, M. H. Randles, in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 2 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 238–240.

L. Yang, V. Petričević, R. R. Alfano, in Novel Laser Sources and Applications, J. F. Becker, A. C. Tam, J. B. Gruber, L. Lam, eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 103–115.

R. R. Alfano, V. Petričević, progress reports to the National Science Foundation, grant 9015486, 1991–1993.

S. Kück, S. Hartung, K. Petermann, G. Huber, presented at the Tunable Solid State Laser Conference, Minsk, Belorus, 1994.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarized absorption spectra of Cr4+:Ca2GeO4 for three different crystal orientations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence spectra of Cr4+:Ca2GeO4 for 670-nm excitation at room temperature (thicker curve) and at liquid-N2 temperature (thinner curve). The Cr4+ emission is strongly polarized along the b axis of the crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser output energy as a function of pump energy for the 100-Hz Cr4+:Ca2GeO4 laser operating with 2%, 5%, and 10% output coupling.

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