Abstract

By concatenating an aluminum-codoped erbium-doped fiber with an efficient erbium/ytterbium-codoped fiber, we produce a gain spectrum that is flat within 0.5 dB for 17 nm from 1544 to 1561 nm. By using energy transfer between erbium and ytterbium ions, we are able to pump the second stage with a high-power 1064-nm source to achieve an output power as high as +26 dBm. Using 980-nm pumping of the first stage, we produce an overall noise figure below 5 dB.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Grubb, T. Windhorn, W. Humer, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, J. Townsend, K. Jedrzejewski, W. Barnes, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), postdeadline paper PdP12-1.
  2. J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, S. Grubb, Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Grubb, D. DiGiovanni, J. Simpson, W. Cheung, S. Sanders, D. Welch, B. Rockney, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG4.
  4. J. Lincoln, W. Barnes, W. Brocklesby, J. Townsend, J. Lumin. 60, 204 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Wysocki, G. Nykolak, D. Shenk, K. Eason, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG6.
  6. D. Bayart, J. Hervo, F. Chiquet, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP2.
  7. R. A. Betts, S. J. Frisken, D. Wong, in Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP4.
  8. T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, M. Kakui, M. Onishi, M. Nishimura, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP1.
  9. E. Desurvire, C. Giles, J. Simpson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2095 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. K. Srivasta, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, M. A. Mills, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

1994 (1)

J. Lincoln, W. Barnes, W. Brocklesby, J. Townsend, J. Lumin. 60, 204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, S. Grubb, Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

E. Desurvire, C. Giles, J. Simpson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2095 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W.

J. Lincoln, W. Barnes, W. Brocklesby, J. Townsend, J. Lumin. 60, 204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, S. Grubb, Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Grubb, T. Windhorn, W. Humer, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, J. Townsend, K. Jedrzejewski, W. Barnes, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), postdeadline paper PdP12-1.

Bayart, D.

D. Bayart, J. Hervo, F. Chiquet, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP2.

Betts, R. A.

R. A. Betts, S. J. Frisken, D. Wong, in Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP4.

Brocklesby, W.

J. Lincoln, W. Barnes, W. Brocklesby, J. Townsend, J. Lumin. 60, 204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, W.

S. Grubb, D. DiGiovanni, J. Simpson, W. Cheung, S. Sanders, D. Welch, B. Rockney, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG4.

Chiquet, F.

D. Bayart, J. Hervo, F. Chiquet, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP2.

Desurvire, E.

C. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, C. Giles, J. Simpson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2095 (1985).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D.

S. Grubb, D. DiGiovanni, J. Simpson, W. Cheung, S. Sanders, D. Welch, B. Rockney, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG4.

Eason, K.

P. Wysocki, G. Nykolak, D. Shenk, K. Eason, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG6.

Evankow, J. D.

A. K. Srivasta, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, M. A. Mills, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

Frisken, S. J.

R. A. Betts, S. J. Frisken, D. Wong, in Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP4.

Giles, C.

C. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, C. Giles, J. Simpson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2095 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, S.

J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, S. Grubb, Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Grubb, D. DiGiovanni, J. Simpson, W. Cheung, S. Sanders, D. Welch, B. Rockney, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG4.

S. Grubb, T. Windhorn, W. Humer, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, J. Townsend, K. Jedrzejewski, W. Barnes, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), postdeadline paper PdP12-1.

Hervo, J.

D. Bayart, J. Hervo, F. Chiquet, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP2.

Humer, W.

S. Grubb, T. Windhorn, W. Humer, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, J. Townsend, K. Jedrzejewski, W. Barnes, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), postdeadline paper PdP12-1.

Jedrzejewski, K.

J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, S. Grubb, Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Grubb, T. Windhorn, W. Humer, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, J. Townsend, K. Jedrzejewski, W. Barnes, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), postdeadline paper PdP12-1.

Kakui, M.

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, M. Kakui, M. Onishi, M. Nishimura, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP1.

Kashiwada, T.

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, M. Kakui, M. Onishi, M. Nishimura, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP1.

Leilabady, P.

S. Grubb, T. Windhorn, W. Humer, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, J. Townsend, K. Jedrzejewski, W. Barnes, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), postdeadline paper PdP12-1.

Lincoln, J.

J. Lincoln, W. Barnes, W. Brocklesby, J. Townsend, J. Lumin. 60, 204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mills, M. A.

A. K. Srivasta, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, M. A. Mills, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

Nishimura, M.

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, M. Kakui, M. Onishi, M. Nishimura, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP1.

Nykolak, G.

P. Wysocki, G. Nykolak, D. Shenk, K. Eason, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG6.

Onishi, M.

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, M. Kakui, M. Onishi, M. Nishimura, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP1.

Rockney, B.

S. Grubb, D. DiGiovanni, J. Simpson, W. Cheung, S. Sanders, D. Welch, B. Rockney, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG4.

Sanders, S.

S. Grubb, D. DiGiovanni, J. Simpson, W. Cheung, S. Sanders, D. Welch, B. Rockney, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG4.

Shenk, D.

P. Wysocki, G. Nykolak, D. Shenk, K. Eason, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG6.

Shigematsu, M.

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, M. Kakui, M. Onishi, M. Nishimura, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP1.

Simpson, J.

E. Desurvire, C. Giles, J. Simpson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2095 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Grubb, D. DiGiovanni, J. Simpson, W. Cheung, S. Sanders, D. Welch, B. Rockney, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG4.

Srivasta, A. K.

A. K. Srivasta, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, M. A. Mills, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

Sulhoff, J. W.

A. K. Srivasta, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, M. A. Mills, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

Sweeney, K.

S. Grubb, T. Windhorn, W. Humer, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, J. Townsend, K. Jedrzejewski, W. Barnes, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), postdeadline paper PdP12-1.

Townsend, J.

J. Lincoln, W. Barnes, W. Brocklesby, J. Townsend, J. Lumin. 60, 204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, S. Grubb, Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Grubb, T. Windhorn, W. Humer, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, J. Townsend, K. Jedrzejewski, W. Barnes, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), postdeadline paper PdP12-1.

Welch, D.

S. Grubb, D. DiGiovanni, J. Simpson, W. Cheung, S. Sanders, D. Welch, B. Rockney, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG4.

Windhorn, T.

S. Grubb, T. Windhorn, W. Humer, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, J. Townsend, K. Jedrzejewski, W. Barnes, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), postdeadline paper PdP12-1.

Wong, D.

R. A. Betts, S. J. Frisken, D. Wong, in Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP4.

Wysocki, P.

P. Wysocki, G. Nykolak, D. Shenk, K. Eason, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG6.

Zyskind, J. L.

A. K. Srivasta, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, M. A. Mills, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Townsend, W. Barnes, K. Jedrzejewski, S. Grubb, Electron. Lett. 27, 1958 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

E. Desurvire, C. Giles, J. Simpson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 2095 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

J. Lincoln, W. Barnes, W. Brocklesby, J. Townsend, J. Lumin. 60, 204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

P. Wysocki, G. Nykolak, D. Shenk, K. Eason, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG6.

D. Bayart, J. Hervo, F. Chiquet, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP2.

R. A. Betts, S. J. Frisken, D. Wong, in Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP4.

T. Kashiwada, M. Shigematsu, M. Kakui, M. Onishi, M. Nishimura, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper TuP1.

A. K. Srivasta, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. D. Evankow, M. A. Mills, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG7.

S. Grubb, D. DiGiovanni, J. Simpson, W. Cheung, S. Sanders, D. Welch, B. Rockney, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuG4.

S. Grubb, T. Windhorn, W. Humer, K. Sweeney, P. Leilabady, J. Townsend, K. Jedrzejewski, W. Barnes, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), postdeadline paper PdP12-1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical gain curves for different ion inversion (Inv) levels for (a) aluminum-codoped (6 mol.%) EDF and (b) phosphorus-codoped EYDF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Predicted flat combined spectra for 15-m EDF inverted to the Inv1 level and 6-m EYDF inverted to the Inv2 level.

Fig.3
Fig.3

Configuration for hybrid EDFA. WDM’s, wavelength-division multiplexers

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured flattest gain spectra produced by hybrid EDFA with 15-m EDF and 9-m EYDF for various saturating signals at 1548 nm. Pump power at 1064 nm in stage 2 was adjusted in each case to 307, 425, 645, and 1024 mW from the top curve to the bottom.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured output power at 1548 nm versus launched pump power at 1064 nm for the hybrid EDFA with 15-m EDF and 9-m EYDF for two different launched powers at 1548 nm.

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