Abstract

With the goal of being able to create optical devices for the telecommunications industry, we investigated the effects of 810-nm, femtosecond laser radiation on various glasses. By focusing the laser beam through a microscope objective, we successfully wrote transparent, but visible, round-elliptical damage lines inside high-silica, borate, soda lime silicate, and fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) bulk glasses. Microellipsometer measurements of the damaged region in the pure and Ge-doped silica glasses showed a 0.01–0.035 refractive-index increase, depending on the radiation dose. The formation of several defects, including Si E′ or Ge E′ centers, nonbridging oxygen hole centers, and peroxy radicals, was also detected. These results suggest that multiphoton interactions occur in the glasses and that it may be possible to write three-dimensional optical circuits in bulk glasses with such a focused laser beam technique.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
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  3. R. A. Weeks, E. Sonder, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Paramagnetic Resonance (Academic, New York, 1963), Vol. 2, p. 869.
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    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. B. Devine, C. Fiori, J. Robertson, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, M. J. Weber, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 177 .
  6. R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagawawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 15, 102 (1990).
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  8. H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, K. Muta, K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 112.

1992

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, K. Muta, K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagawawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1978

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1960

C. M. Nelson, R. A. Weeks, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 43, 396 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, K. Muta, K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 112.

Davey, S. T.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Devine, R. A. B.

R. A. B. Devine, C. Fiori, J. Robertson, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, M. J. Weber, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 177 .

Douay, M.

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 112.

Fiori, C.

R. A. B. Devine, C. Fiori, J. Robertson, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, M. J. Weber, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 177 .

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom, in Glass Science and Technology, Vol. 4B of Advances in Structural Analysis, D. R. Uhlmann, N. J. Kreidl, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 197–223.

Hama, Y.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagawawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, K. Muta, K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, K.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, K. Muta, K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kinser, D.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, K. Muta, K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, H.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagawawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Muta, K.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, K. Muta, K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagawawa, K.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagawawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, C. M.

C. M. Nelson, R. A. Weeks, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 43, 396 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 112.

Ohki, Y.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagawawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 112.

Robertson, J.

R. A. B. Devine, C. Fiori, J. Robertson, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, M. J. Weber, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 177 .

Russell, P. St. J.

Sasagane, K.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagawawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sonder, E.

R. A. Weeks, E. Sonder, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Paramagnetic Resonance (Academic, New York, 1963), Vol. 2, p. 869.

Tohmon, R.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagawawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, R.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, K. Muta, K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, R. A.

C. M. Nelson, R. A. Weeks, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 43, 396 (1960).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Weeks, E. Sonder, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Paramagnetic Resonance (Academic, New York, 1963), Vol. 2, p. 869.

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

C. M. Nelson, R. A. Weeks, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 43, 396 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagawawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, K. Muta, K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 112.

R. A. B. Devine, C. Fiori, J. Robertson, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, M. J. Weber, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 177 .

D. L. Griscom, in Glass Science and Technology, Vol. 4B of Advances in Structural Analysis, D. R. Uhlmann, N. J. Kreidl, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 197–223.

R. A. Weeks, E. Sonder, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Paramagnetic Resonance (Academic, New York, 1963), Vol. 2, p. 869.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser damage process with images of (A) a laser damage line, (B) the cross section of a line written by translation of the sample parallel to the incident laser beam, and (C) the cross section of a line written by translation of the sample perpendicular to the incident laser beam by a 5× microscope objective. The dashed line in (C) represents the path traversed during the microellipsometer measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index mappings across the cross sections of damage lines created by translation of the samples perpendicular to the laser beam [see Fig. 1(C)] with a 10× lens, an average laser power of 470 mW, and a sample translation rate of 100 μm/s for (A) 3GeO2 97SiO2 after 10 passes of the laser along an identical route, (B) 3GeO2 97SiO2 after a single pass of the laser, and (C) pure silica after a single pass of the laser. The visible dimensions of the damage cross sections are approximately 6 μm × 180 μm for all the damage marks, so the outer limits of the mappings represent the refractive index of the surrounding glass.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ESR spectra of SiO2 and 3GeO2 97SiO2 glasses after laser irradiation. The solid and the dotted curves indicate ESR spectra collected with 1- and 50-mW microwave powers, respectively. The as-received pure-silica glass contained immeasurably small defect concentrations, and the as-received Ge-doped silica glass contained minute concentrations of ESR-detectable defects compared with the damaged glass. NBOHC’s, Nonbridging oxygen hole centers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

UV difference spectra of the high-silica glasses before and after they were laser irradiated. The Ge-doped silica spectrum is vertically offset by +0.01 for clarity. The noise in these spectra is due to the damaged region, which comprises less than 5 vol. % of the glass probed by the spectrometer beam.

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