Abstract

Novel Langmuir–Blodgett-film toxic-gas sensors that have a Ti:LiNbO3 integrated optical Mach–Zehnder interferometer structure are experimentally investigated. The gas-sensing properties of the sensors are obtained for NO2, Cl2, NH3, and H2S by means of the detection of optical output changes. All the optical connections are made with optical fiber pigtails.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. W. Pitt, A. G. James, M. M. Soe, IEE Colloq. Proc. 133 (1990).
  2. R. Bonnett, S. Ioannou, A. James, C. Pitt, M. Soe, J. Mater. Chem. 3, 793 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Chen, Q. Liang, Y. Liu, Y. Xu, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 11, 213 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. C. Alferness, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 30, 1121 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Tamir, ed., Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 145.
  6. H. Perez, A. Barraud, Synth. Metals 61, 23 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Aroaca, H. Bolourchi, D. Battisti, K. Najafi, Langmuir 9, 3183 (1993).

1996

F. Chen, Q. Liang, Y. Liu, Y. Xu, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 11, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. Bonnett, S. Ioannou, A. James, C. Pitt, M. Soe, J. Mater. Chem. 3, 793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Perez, A. Barraud, Synth. Metals 61, 23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Aroaca, H. Bolourchi, D. Battisti, K. Najafi, Langmuir 9, 3183 (1993).

1990

C. W. Pitt, A. G. James, M. M. Soe, IEE Colloq. Proc. 133 (1990).

1982

R. C. Alferness, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 30, 1121 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 30, 1121 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aroaca, R.

R. Aroaca, H. Bolourchi, D. Battisti, K. Najafi, Langmuir 9, 3183 (1993).

Barraud, A.

H. Perez, A. Barraud, Synth. Metals 61, 23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Battisti, D.

R. Aroaca, H. Bolourchi, D. Battisti, K. Najafi, Langmuir 9, 3183 (1993).

Bolourchi, H.

R. Aroaca, H. Bolourchi, D. Battisti, K. Najafi, Langmuir 9, 3183 (1993).

Bonnett, R.

R. Bonnett, S. Ioannou, A. James, C. Pitt, M. Soe, J. Mater. Chem. 3, 793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, Q. Liang, Y. Liu, Y. Xu, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 11, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ioannou, S.

R. Bonnett, S. Ioannou, A. James, C. Pitt, M. Soe, J. Mater. Chem. 3, 793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

James, A.

R. Bonnett, S. Ioannou, A. James, C. Pitt, M. Soe, J. Mater. Chem. 3, 793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

James, A. G.

C. W. Pitt, A. G. James, M. M. Soe, IEE Colloq. Proc. 133 (1990).

Liang, Q.

F. Chen, Q. Liang, Y. Liu, Y. Xu, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 11, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

F. Chen, Q. Liang, Y. Liu, Y. Xu, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 11, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, K.

R. Aroaca, H. Bolourchi, D. Battisti, K. Najafi, Langmuir 9, 3183 (1993).

Perez, H.

H. Perez, A. Barraud, Synth. Metals 61, 23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pitt, C.

R. Bonnett, S. Ioannou, A. James, C. Pitt, M. Soe, J. Mater. Chem. 3, 793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pitt, C. W.

C. W. Pitt, A. G. James, M. M. Soe, IEE Colloq. Proc. 133 (1990).

Soe, M.

R. Bonnett, S. Ioannou, A. James, C. Pitt, M. Soe, J. Mater. Chem. 3, 793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Soe, M. M.

C. W. Pitt, A. G. James, M. M. Soe, IEE Colloq. Proc. 133 (1990).

Xu, Y.

F. Chen, Q. Liang, Y. Liu, Y. Xu, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 11, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEE Colloq. Proc.

C. W. Pitt, A. G. James, M. M. Soe, IEE Colloq. Proc. 133 (1990).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol.

R. C. Alferness, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 30, 1121 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

R. Bonnett, S. Ioannou, A. James, C. Pitt, M. Soe, J. Mater. Chem. 3, 793 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

R. Aroaca, H. Bolourchi, D. Battisti, K. Najafi, Langmuir 9, 3183 (1993).

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.

F. Chen, Q. Liang, Y. Liu, Y. Xu, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 11, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Metals

H. Perez, A. Barraud, Synth. Metals 61, 23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Tamir, ed., Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 145.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the integrated optical interferometer gas sensor and the experimental setup of the sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (b) Phase-shift difference Δϕ versus ϕa; (c) optical output intensity change versus Δϕ.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Results with 26 Layers of Cu Metalloporphyrin as the Active Film and 24 Layers of Arachidic Acid as the Passive Film

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental Results with 30 Layers of Zn Metalloporphyrin as the Active Film and 24 Layers of Arachidic Acid as the Passive Film

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I max cos 2 ( Δ ϕ / 2 ) ,
Δ ϕ = ϕ p ϕ a ,
R = ( P 2 P 1 ) / P 1 ,

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