Abstract

A method for imaging through highly scattering media is described that consists of forming a multiplicity of holograms and performing an extensive averaging process. This process produces an estimate of the phase distribution across the exiting surface of the medium. This information is combined with the available magnitude data to form an ensemble-averaged wave front that can be backprojected to form an image of absorbers within or behind the scattering medium.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1992 (2)

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

N. Abramson, K. G. Spears, Appl. Opt. 28, 1834 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

1971 (1)

M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, Appl. Opt. 10, 2126 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abramson, N.

N. Abramson, K. G. Spears, Appl. Opt. 28, 1834 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Bjelkhagen, H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chen, H.

De Silvestri, S.

Diels, J-C.

Dilworth, D.

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, Appl. Opt. 10, 2126 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Hebden, J. C.

Ippen, E. P.

Kruger, R. A.

Leith, E.

Lopez, J.

Margolis, R.

Mattick, A. T.

M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, Appl. Opt. 10, 2126 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Oseroff, A.

Rudd, J.

Serafin, J.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spears, K. G.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Abramson, K. G. Spears, Appl. Opt. 28, 1834 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, P.C.

Valdmanis, J.

Vossler, G.

Wong, K. S.

Xing, Q.

Yan, C.

Yoo, K. M.

Zhu, X.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Light rays traveling from an object point (A) through a highly scattering medium to a single point on the exiting surface (B). In the absence of the medium, light follows only the straight-through path from A to B (depicted by the dashed line). In this case we find a phase distribution, at the exiting surface, of exp( j2πr/λ). With the scattering medium present, however, the light from A reaches B by a great multiplicity of paths, giving a resultant magnitude and phase distribution a(x, y)exp[jϕ(x, y)] where a and ϕ are random variables whose statistics depend on the scattering properties of the medium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the ensemble-averaged imaging system. The exiting surface of the time-varying diffuser is imaged onto the CCD camera, where it interferes with the reference beam, thereby producing an image plane hologram. The spatial filters (SF’s) are used to prevent undersampling of the speckle field by the CCD camera. BS’s, beam splitters; M’s, mirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation results for a scattering medium made up of three planar random phase elements, each separated by 10 mm from the others. We see a factor-of-6 improvement in the resolution when comparing the standard speckle averaging method (b) with the complex averaging method described here (f). (a) Object, two 0.25-mm slits separated by 3 mm; (b) ensemble magnitude image (1000 frames); (c) single magnitude image; (d) ensemble unwrapped phase; (e) single unwrapped phase image; (f) focused ensemble image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results for a scattering medium made up of three planar diffusers, each separated by 10 mm from the others. We see a factor-of-7.5 improvement in the resolution when comparing the standard speckle averaging method (b) with the complex averaging method described here (f). (a) Object, two 0.25-mm slits separated by 3 mm; (b) ensemble magnitude image (8000 frames); (c) single magnitude image; (d) ensemble unwrapped phase; (e) single unwrapped phase image; (f) focused ensemble image.

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