Abstract

Negative feedback provided by frequency-guiding filters locks the energies of individual soliton channels to values that do not change with distance, even in the face of considerable variation in amplifier gain among the different channels. The equilibrium values of the energies are further largely independent of input levels and tend to vary only in proportion to the fiber’s dispersion. This regulation is important for long-distance transmission and for networking applications.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Mecozzi, J. D. Moores, H. A. Haus, Y. Lai, Opt. Lett. 16, 1841 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, Electron. Lett. 32, 471 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD-22.
  6. P. V. Mamyshev, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 19, 2083 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. V. Mamyshev, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 21, 396 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, Electron. Lett. 32, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Mamyshev, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 21, 396 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1992

1991

Evangelides, S. G.

Gordon, J. P.

Hasegawa, A.

Haus, H. A.

Kodama, Y.

Lai, Y.

Mamyshev, P. V.

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, Electron. Lett. 32, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Mamyshev, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 21, 396 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Mamyshev, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 19, 2083 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD-22.

Mecozzi, A.

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, Electron. Lett. 32, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Mamyshev, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 21, 396 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Mamyshev, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 19, 2083 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, S. G. Evangelides, Opt. Lett. 17, 1575 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD-22.

Moores, J. D.

Neubelt, M. J.

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, Electron. Lett. 32, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD-22.

Electron. Lett.

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, Electron. Lett. 32, 471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD-22.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pulse output energy versus 15-ps pulse input energy for a soliton transmission line using strong sliding frequency guiding filters [η = 0.4, sliding rate 13 GHz/Mm, excess gain 2 Mm−1, path-average dispersion D = 0.5 ps/(nm km)], for various transmission distances. The energy is normalized to the energy of the solitons of the transmission line (τ ≃ 12.5 ps). Note that this transfer function becomes essentially digital in nature for distances in excess of a few megameters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Growth with distance of signal pulse energies in WDM channels with relative gain rates of ±1 and 0 dB/Mm, respectively, for a system using sliding-frequency filters (damping length Δ = 400 km) and for a system using no filters at all.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimentally observed spectra of an eight-channel soliton WDM transmission as seen at 0 (two examples), 10, and 20 Mm. Note that, save for the overall spectral shift resulting from the filter sliding, the spectra at 10 and 20 Mm are essentially identical and are independent of the detailed nature of the intensity pattern at input. The dashed line through the spectral peaks accurately passes through the path-average value of 10 for the 200-km recirculating loop.

Equations (3)

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1 W i d W i d z = α Gi 1 + mR ( W 1 + W 2 + + W N ) / P sat α Li f ( W i / D i ) .
γ 1 Δ = W d f d W .
α 515 ( D / τ 2 ) ,

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