Abstract

An array of photorefractive (PR) waveguides is proposed for massively parallel optical interconnections. The array of PR waveguides can be fabricated in a lithium niobate crystal by illumination of an interference fringe pattern formed by plane waves. We numerically calculate the maximum density of the PR waveguides when the coupling between the PR waveguides is negligible. Experiments for the fabrication and guiding tests of the array of two-dimensional PR waveguides are demonstrated.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Psaltis, D. Brady, K. Wagner, Appl. Opt. 27, 1752 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

O. Matoba, K. Itoh, Y. Ichoika, Opt. Rev. 1, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics, 2nd ed. (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1982), Chap. 10.3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of an optical system for fabrication of an array of PR waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity distributions in arrays of waveguides with periods of (a) 6 μm and (b) 15 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized transferred power versus the array period.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for (a) the fabrication of an array of two-dimensional PR waveguides and (b) the guiding tests. HM1, HM2, half-mirrors; M1, M2, mirrors; PZT, piezoelectric translator; NDF, neutral-density filter; PC, personal computer; L1, L2, lenses; P, polarizer; CCD1, CCD2, CCD image sensors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field patterns in two-dimensional PR waveguides with a 40-μm period. The center of the test beam is shifted by (a) 0 μm, (b) 10 μm, (c) 20 μm, and (d) 30 μm along the c axis.

Equations (5)

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I ( x , y ) = cos 2 ( a ϕ x ) cos 2 ( b ϕ y ) ,
ϕ = 2 π λ a 2 + b 2 + f 2 ,
Δ n ( x ) = Δ n max I ( x ) ,
Δ n max = 1 2 σ γ 33 n e 3 k α ,
NTP = 1 P a P i ,

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