Abstract

Intense optical pumping of solutions of high-gain laser dyes and TiO2 nanoscatterers in methanol is found to result in narrow-linewidth bichromatic emission. Experimental studies of the long-wavelength emission peak show that weak pumping of the scattering gain medium by the primary lasing emission results in a random system that lases at longer wavelengths. Measurements with other dyes show that the bichromatic emission effect is very general.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, Nature (London) 368, 436 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. M. Lawandy, A. S. L. Gomes, R. M. Balachandran, in The 1993 International Conference on Luminescence ,ICL ’93 Technical Digest (University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 1993) paper Th1A3.
  3. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, Nature (London) 373, 204 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 20, 1271 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Opt. 35, 640 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, Nature (London) 368, 400 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. L. Sha, C. H. Liu, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 19, 1922 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 961 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Zhang, B. Chen, Z. Li, Opt. Commun. 118, 462 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, A. Lagendijk, Nature (London) 373, 202 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 1023 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. D. Cashwell, C. J. Everett, A Practical Manual on the Monte Carlo Method for Random Walk Problems (Pergamon, New York, 1959).
  13. L. G. Nair, Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 153 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (6)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, Nature (London) 373, 204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, B. Chen, Z. Li, Opt. Commun. 118, 462 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, A. Lagendijk, Nature (London) 373, 202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 1023 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 20, 1271 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, Nature (London) 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Sha, C. H. Liu, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 19, 1922 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, Nature (London) 368, 400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

L. G. Nair, Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Balachandran, R. M.

R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Opt. 35, 640 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 20, 1271 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, Nature (London) 373, 204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, Nature (London) 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, A. S. L. Gomes, R. M. Balachandran, in The 1993 International Conference on Luminescence ,ICL ’93 Technical Digest (University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 1993) paper Th1A3.

Cashwell, E. D.

E. D. Cashwell, C. J. Everett, A Practical Manual on the Monte Carlo Method for Random Walk Problems (Pergamon, New York, 1959).

Chen, B.

D. Zhang, B. Chen, Z. Li, Opt. Commun. 118, 462 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cue, N.

Drake, J. M.

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, Nature (London) 368, 400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Everett, C. J.

E. D. Cashwell, C. J. Everett, A Practical Manual on the Monte Carlo Method for Random Walk Problems (Pergamon, New York, 1959).

Genack, A. Z.

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, Nature (London) 368, 400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, Nature (London) 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, A. S. L. Gomes, R. M. Balachandran, in The 1993 International Conference on Luminescence ,ICL ’93 Technical Digest (University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 1993) paper Th1A3.

Lagendijk, A.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, A. Lagendijk, Nature (London) 373, 202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Opt. 35, 640 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Balachandran, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Lett. 20, 1271 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, Nature (London) 373, 204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, Nature (London) 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, A. S. L. Gomes, R. M. Balachandran, in The 1993 International Conference on Luminescence ,ICL ’93 Technical Digest (University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 1993) paper Th1A3.

Li, Z.

D. Zhang, B. Chen, Z. Li, Opt. Commun. 118, 462 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. H.

Nair, L. G.

L. G. Nair, Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pacheco, D. P.

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, Nature (London) 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sha, W. L.

van Albada, M. P.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, A. Lagendijk, Nature (London) 373, 202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, A. Lagendijk, Nature (London) 373, 202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. M.

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, B. Chen, Z. Li, Opt. Commun. 118, 462 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Nature (London) (4)

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, A. Lagendijk, Nature (London) 373, 202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Sauvain, Nature (London) 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, Nature (London) 373, 204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, Nature (London) 368, 400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Zhang, B. Chen, Z. Li, Opt. Commun. 118, 462 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. G. Nair, Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. D. Cashwell, C. J. Everett, A Practical Manual on the Monte Carlo Method for Random Walk Problems (Pergamon, New York, 1959).

N. M. Lawandy, A. S. L. Gomes, R. M. Balachandran, in The 1993 International Conference on Luminescence ,ICL ’93 Technical Digest (University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 1993) paper Th1A3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linewidth and input–output characteristics of the main peak (617 nm) and the longer-wavelength peak (648 nm) for a 2.5 × 10−3 M solution of Rhodamine 640 perchlorate with 1.5 × 1011/cm3 TiO2 particles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bichromatic emission from a 5 × 10−3 M solution of Rhodamine 640 perchlorate with 8.6 × 1011/cm3 TiO2 scatterers (solid curve). The spectrum shown by the dashed curve is from the same solution pumped by 617 nm, which has a peak at 652 nm. This spectrum also includes some of the scattered 617-nm light off the sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical model used to describe the bichromatic emission. V1 is the volume pumped by the 532-nm light that lases at 617-nm. The 617-nm light in turn pumps volume V2, which produces the 648-nm emission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effective gain spectrum resulting from the 617-nm emission pumping the scattering gain medium in volume V2.

Equations (5)

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exp ( γ th L ) R 1 R 2 = 1 ,
d n 2 d t = ( 1 n 2 ) [ B p I p ( t ) + d λ B abs ( λ ) I l ( λ , t ) ] n 2 [ d λ B l ( λ ) I l ( λ , t ) + Γ ] ,
d I l d t = c { γ 0 ( λ ) n 2 ( t ) α ( λ ) [ 1 n 2 ( t ) ] γ th } × I l ( λ , t ) + η ( λ ) n 2 ( t ) ,
n 2 = B p I p B p I p + Γ .
γ eff ( λ ) = γ 0 ( λ ) n 2 α abs ( λ ) ( 1 n 2 ) .

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