Abstract

We tested the specularity of the reflection of slow atoms from an evanescent-wave mirror at normal incidence. In two of the three prisms that we tested the atoms were reflected diffusely. This nonspecular reflection appears to be correlated with the rms roughness of the surface supporting the evanescent wave. Only the highest quality surface (rms roughness of the order of 0.1 nm) leads to specular reflection. This discovery imposes stringent limits on the use of these mirrors in atomic-optics experiments.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Cook, R. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. SeeC. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rep. 240, 143 (1994), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Christ, A. Scholz, M. Schiffer, R. Deutschmann, W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994); R. Brouri, R. Asimov, M. Gorlicki, S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, V. Lorent, H. Haberland, Opt. Commun. 124, 448 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Aminoff, A. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Model 5500, manufactured by Zygo, Inc. The profiles of prism A contained three small regions with large deviations from the mean, perhaps because of a scratch. These points were omitted from the rms.
  7. G. Labeyrie, A. Landragin, J. von Zanthier, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 603 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Jurczak, K. Sengstock, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Opt. Commun. 115, 480 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Henkel, J.-Y. Courtois, A. Aspect, J. Phys. II (Paris) 4, 1955 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Rempe, R. Thompson, J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 17, 363 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

G. Labeyrie, A. Landragin, J. von Zanthier, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Jurczak, K. Sengstock, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Opt. Commun. 115, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

SeeC. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rep. 240, 143 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Christ, A. Scholz, M. Schiffer, R. Deutschmann, W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994); R. Brouri, R. Asimov, M. Gorlicki, S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, V. Lorent, H. Haberland, Opt. Commun. 124, 448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Henkel, J.-Y. Courtois, A. Aspect, J. Phys. II (Paris) 4, 1955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. Aminoff, A. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

R. Cook, R. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C.

SeeC. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rep. 240, 143 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Aminoff, C.

C. Aminoff, A. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspect, A.

G. Labeyrie, A. Landragin, J. von Zanthier, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Jurczak, K. Sengstock, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Opt. Commun. 115, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Henkel, J.-Y. Courtois, A. Aspect, J. Phys. II (Paris) 4, 1955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bouyer, P.

C. Aminoff, A. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christ, M.

M. Christ, A. Scholz, M. Schiffer, R. Deutschmann, W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994); R. Brouri, R. Asimov, M. Gorlicki, S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, V. Lorent, H. Haberland, Opt. Commun. 124, 448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

C. Aminoff, A. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, R.

R. Cook, R. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Courtois, J.-Y.

C. Henkel, J.-Y. Courtois, A. Aspect, J. Phys. II (Paris) 4, 1955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dalibard, J.

A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Aminoff, A. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desbiolles, P.

A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Aminoff, A. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutschmann, R.

M. Christ, A. Scholz, M. Schiffer, R. Deutschmann, W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994); R. Brouri, R. Asimov, M. Gorlicki, S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, V. Lorent, H. Haberland, Opt. Commun. 124, 448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ertmer, W.

M. Christ, A. Scholz, M. Schiffer, R. Deutschmann, W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994); R. Brouri, R. Asimov, M. Gorlicki, S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, V. Lorent, H. Haberland, Opt. Commun. 124, 448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henkel, C.

C. Henkel, J.-Y. Courtois, A. Aspect, J. Phys. II (Paris) 4, 1955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R.

R. Cook, R. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jurczak, C.

C. Jurczak, K. Sengstock, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Opt. Commun. 115, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R.

G. Labeyrie, A. Landragin, J. von Zanthier, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Jurczak, K. Sengstock, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Opt. Commun. 115, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasapi, S.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasevich, M.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, J.

Labeyrie, G.

G. Labeyrie, A. Landragin, J. von Zanthier, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Landragin, A.

G. Labeyrie, A. Landragin, J. von Zanthier, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

SeeC. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rep. 240, 143 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Moler, K.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rempe, G.

Riis, E.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiffer, M.

M. Christ, A. Scholz, M. Schiffer, R. Deutschmann, W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994); R. Brouri, R. Asimov, M. Gorlicki, S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, V. Lorent, H. Haberland, Opt. Commun. 124, 448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, A.

M. Christ, A. Scholz, M. Schiffer, R. Deutschmann, W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994); R. Brouri, R. Asimov, M. Gorlicki, S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, V. Lorent, H. Haberland, Opt. Commun. 124, 448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sengstock, K.

C. Jurczak, K. Sengstock, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Opt. Commun. 115, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, M.

SeeC. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rep. 240, 143 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Steane, A.

A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Aminoff, A. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szriftgiser, P.

A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, R.

Vansteenkiste, N.

G. Labeyrie, A. Landragin, J. von Zanthier, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Jurczak, K. Sengstock, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Opt. Commun. 115, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

von Zanthier, J.

G. Labeyrie, A. Landragin, J. von Zanthier, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, D.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westbrook, C.

G. Labeyrie, A. Landragin, J. von Zanthier, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Jurczak, K. Sengstock, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Opt. Commun. 115, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. II (Paris)

C. Henkel, J.-Y. Courtois, A. Aspect, J. Phys. II (Paris) 4, 1955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Christ, A. Scholz, M. Schiffer, R. Deutschmann, W. Ertmer, Opt. Commun. 111, 566 (1994); R. Brouri, R. Asimov, M. Gorlicki, S. Feron, J. Reinhardt, V. Lorent, H. Haberland, Opt. Commun. 124, 448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Cook, R. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. Jurczak, K. Sengstock, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Opt. Commun. 115, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rep.

SeeC. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rep. 240, 143 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Aminoff, A. Steane, P. Bouyer, P. Desbiolles, J. Dalibard, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3083 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Semiclass. Opt.

G. Labeyrie, A. Landragin, J. von Zanthier, R. Kaiser, N. Vansteenkiste, C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

Model 5500, manufactured by Zygo, Inc. The profiles of prism A contained three small regions with large deviations from the mean, perhaps because of a scratch. These points were omitted from the rms.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the apparatus. The probe beam actually propagates at 45° or 90° to the plane of the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Profiles of the atomic cloud (along the y direction) from the CCD camera after the bounce for three different prisms: (a) Prism A, detuning 4 GHz, polarization TM, height (h) of fall 15 mm, t = 84 ms; (b) prism B, detuning 4 GHz, polarization TM, h = 18 mm, t = 83 ms; (c) prism C, detuning 3 GHz, polarization TE, h = 14 mm, t = 86 ms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Size of cloud (along y) as a function of time, for prisms A (filled circles), B (open circles), and C (filled triangles). The points at negative time correspond to an image of the MOT just before release. The initial times are not all equal because, for technical reasons, the height of the drop was not the same for each prism. The lines correspond to Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of the cloud, assuming a mirror size of 1 mm and various values of a random transverse velocity kick at reflection whose rms is shown in units of recoil velocity.

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