Abstract

We report the observation of incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright photorefractive screening solitons. The solitons remain intact and do not exchange energy whenever the collision angle exceeds the critical angle for guidance in the waveguide that each soliton induces, which is, in turn, fully controlled by the soliton parameters. When the collision angle is much smaller than the critical angle the solitons fuse to form a single beam.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. The steady-state self-focusing effect was first observed byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Shih, M. Segev, G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, Y.S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. This insight was pioneered byA. W. Snyder, A. P. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 18, 482 (1993), for general non-Kerr nonlinear media.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Gatz, J. Herrmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 28, 1732 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Tikhonenko, J. Christou, B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2698 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. This effect differs from those of previous experiments with soliton-induced waveguides, 10 in which the material was not affected by the guided beam of a much less photosensitive wavelength.
  17. S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. D. Miller, N. N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4098 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Tikhonenko, J. Christou, B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2698 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Miller, N. N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4098 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, Y.S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The steady-state self-focusing effect was first observed byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

This insight was pioneered byA. W. Snyder, A. P. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 18, 482 (1993), for general non-Kerr nonlinear media.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

S. Gatz, J. Herrmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 28, 1732 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmediev, N. N.

P. D. Miller, N. N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4098 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bashaw, M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, M. I.

Chen, Z.

Christodoulides, D. N.

S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Christou, J.

V. Tikhonenko, J. Christou, B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2698 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crosignani, B.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiPorto, P.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrett, M.

Gatz, S.

S. Gatz, J. Herrmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 28, 1732 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

S. Gatz, J. Herrmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 28, 1732 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

The steady-state self-focusing effect was first observed byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y.S.

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, Y.S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kos, K.

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

V. Tikhonenko, J. Christou, B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2698 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquez-Aguilar, P. A.

The steady-state self-focusing effect was first observed byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H.

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. D.

P. D. Miller, N. N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4098 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D. J.

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, Y.S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

Morin, M.

Neurgaonkar, R.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamo, G.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

The steady-state self-focusing effect was first observed byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, A. P.

Shih, M.

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shultz, J. L.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S. R.

S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

Stepanov, S.

The steady-state self-focusing effect was first observed byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonenko, V.

V. Tikhonenko, J. Christou, B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2698 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valley, G. C.

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 629 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vysloukh, V.

The steady-state self-focusing effect was first observed byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

The steady-state self-focusing effect was first observed byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

S. Gatz, J. Herrmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron 28, 1732 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Mod. Phys. Lett. B

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, Y.S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E

K. Kos, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Miller, N. N. Akhmediev, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4098 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

V. Tikhonenko, J. Christou, B. Luther-Davies, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2698 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994); M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

This effect differs from those of previous experiments with soliton-induced waveguides, 10 in which the material was not affected by the guided beam of a much less photosensitive wavelength.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Horizontal and vertical profiles of beams A and B, both of intensity ratio 20 and crossing angle 1.2°, (A) at the entrance face of the crystal and at the exit face when (B) both beams diffract (zero voltage), (C) soliton A or B forms when the other is blocked, and (D) A and collide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs of beams A and B at the entrance face (leftmost column) and at the exit face: middle two columns for each soliton when the other is blocked and rightmost columns when both beams are presented, with different collision angles and intensity ratios.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top-view photographs of soliton collisions at different colliding angles: (A)–(C) with intensity ratio 20 and (D) when both beams diffract.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profiles and photographs of (A) beams A and B at the entrance face, (B) each soliton at the exit face when the other is blocked, and (C) the fused beam at the exit face. Arrows A and B indicate the positions of the centers of diffracting beams A and B. Arrow F indicates the middle point of arrows A and B.

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