Abstract

We propose a 4Pi confocal system that incorporates a phase-conjugate mirror into the system to solve the alignment problem and automatically correct the spherical aberration associated with the conventional 4Pi confocal system when observing a thick sample. The proposed system is experimentally verified by use of cerium-doped barium titanate crystal as the phase-conjugate mirror. The full width of the central peak is ∼0.15 μm. We also theoretically verify the advantage of automatic correction of the spherical aberration by calculating the intensity distribution at the focal spot.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 2159 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, E. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1619 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, Opt. Commun. 93, 277 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Wilson, Y. Kawata, S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 21, 1003 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Kawata, T. Tanaka, Y. Hashimoto, Y. Kawata, Proc. SPIE 2042, 314 (1993).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Lindek, E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 417–430.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

Y. Kawata, H. Ueki, Y. Hashimoto, S. Kawata, Appl. Opt. 34, 4105 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, E. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1619 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

S. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, Opt. Commun. 93, 277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 2159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, Y. Gong, Optik 87, 129 (1991).

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

H. Nakajima, R. Frey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1349 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

Chathey, W. T.

Cremer, C.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, E. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Donckers, M. C. J. M.

Frey, R.

H. Nakajima, R. Frey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1349 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y.

C. J. R. Sheppard, Y. Gong, Optik 87, 129 (1991).

Gu, M.

Hache, F.

Hänninen, P. E.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, Y.

Y. Kawata, H. Ueki, Y. Hashimoto, S. Kawata, Appl. Opt. 34, 4105 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawata, T. Tanaka, Y. Hashimoto, Y. Kawata, Proc. SPIE 2042, 314 (1993).

Hell, S.

S. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, Opt. Commun. 93, 277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 2159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Lindek, E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 417–430.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, E. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

Imbert, B.

Johnson, K. M.

Kawata, S.

Kawata, Y.

Lindek, S.

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, E. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Lindek, E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 417–430.

Mallick, S.

Mao, C.

Moerner, W. E.

Nakajima, H.

H. Nakajima, R. Frey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1349 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rajbenbach, H.

Reiner, G.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salo, J.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1619 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, Y. Gong, Optik 87, 129 (1991).

Silence, S. M.

Soini, E.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

S. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, Opt. Commun. 93, 277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 2159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Lindek, E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 417–430.

Stelzer, E. K.

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, E. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, T. Tanaka, Y. Hashimoto, Y. Kawata, Proc. SPIE 2042, 314 (1993).

Twieg, R. J.

Ueki, H.

Walsh, C. A.

Wilson, T.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, E. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Nakajima, R. Frey, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1349 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, Opt. Commun. 93, 277 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optik (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, Y. Gong, Optik 87, 129 (1991).

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Kawata, T. Tanaka, Y. Hashimoto, Y. Kawata, Proc. SPIE 2042, 314 (1993).

Other (2)

S. Lindek, E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), pp. 417–430.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 169, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical configuration of the proposed 4Pi confocal system with a phase-conjugate mirror. 3D, three-dimensional.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Axial response of the system with BTO crystal when the forward and the backward beams are (a) in phase and (b) out of phase. The full width of the central peak in (a) is ∼0.15 μm. The axial response of the system without BTO crystal is shown in (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculation results showing the axial response of (a) our proposed 4Pi confocal configuration with phase conjugation and (b) a conventional 4Pi confocal system. The inset in (a) shows the geometric model used for the calculation.

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