Abstract

The enhanced coupling between atoms and photons inside a high-finesse optical cavity provides a novel basis for optical measurements that continuously monitor atomic degrees of freedom. We describe an experiment in which cavity quantum-electrodynamic effects are utilized for real-time detection of individual atoms falling through an optical cavity after being dropped from a magneto-optical trap. Our technique permits experiments that are triggered by the presence of a single optimally coupled atom within the cavity mode volume.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. H. Drexhage, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam1974), Vol. 22, p. 163; E. A. Hinds, in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 28, D. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), p. 237.
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. A. Lugiato, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1984), Vol. 21, p. 71.
    [CrossRef]
  3. See Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics, P. R. Berman, ed. (Academic, San Diego, 1994), p. 203.
  4. G. Rempe, F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2783 (1990); see also Ref. 3.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1132 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Brune, F. Schmidtkaler, A. Maali, J. Dreyer, E. Hagley, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800 (1996); see also Ref. 3.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. S. Parkins, P. Marte, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3095 (1993); C. K. Law, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1055 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Brune, P. Nussenzveig, F. Schmidtkaler, F. Bernadot, A. Maali, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3339 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Storey, M. Collett, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 472 (1992); M.A.M. Marte, P. Zoller, Appl. Phys. B 54, 477 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Rempe, Appl. Phys. B 60, 233 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Ozawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 385 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, Opt. Lett. 12, 389 (1987); W. E. Moerner, L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. T. Jaynes, F. W. Cummings, Proc. IEEE 51, 89 (1963);P. Alsing, H. J. Carmichael, Quantum Opt. 3, 13 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. J. Carmichael, An Open Systems Approach to Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
  18. Q. A. Turchette, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B 60, S1 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. M. Wiseman, G. J. Milburn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Haroche, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, Europhys. Lett. 14, 19 (1991); B. G. Englert, J. Schwinger, A. O. Barut, M. O. Scully, Europhys. Lett. 14, 25 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Brune, F. Schmidtkaler, A. Maali, J. Dreyer, E. Hagley, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800 (1996); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rempe, Appl. Phys. B 60, 233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B 60, S1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Brune, P. Nussenzveig, F. Schmidtkaler, F. Bernadot, A. Maali, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3339 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

A. S. Parkins, P. Marte, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3095 (1993); C. K. Law, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1055 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Wiseman, G. J. Milburn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Storey, M. Collett, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 472 (1992); M.A.M. Marte, P. Zoller, Appl. Phys. B 54, 477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

S. Haroche, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, Europhys. Lett. 14, 19 (1991); B. G. Englert, J. Schwinger, A. O. Barut, M. O. Scully, Europhys. Lett. 14, 25 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. Rempe, F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2783 (1990); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Ozawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 385 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

1963 (1)

E. T. Jaynes, F. W. Cummings, Proc. IEEE 51, 89 (1963);P. Alsing, H. J. Carmichael, Quantum Opt. 3, 13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

An, K.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

Bernadot, F.

M. Brune, P. Nussenzveig, F. Schmidtkaler, F. Bernadot, A. Maali, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3339 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brune, M.

M. Brune, F. Schmidtkaler, A. Maali, J. Dreyer, E. Hagley, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800 (1996); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brune, P. Nussenzveig, F. Schmidtkaler, F. Bernadot, A. Maali, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3339 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Haroche, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, Europhys. Lett. 14, 19 (1991); B. G. Englert, J. Schwinger, A. O. Barut, M. O. Scully, Europhys. Lett. 14, 25 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmichael, H. J.

H. J. Carmichael, An Open Systems Approach to Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).

Childs, J. J.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collett, M.

P. Storey, M. Collett, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 472 (1992); M.A.M. Marte, P. Zoller, Appl. Phys. B 54, 477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummings, F. W.

E. T. Jaynes, F. W. Cummings, Proc. IEEE 51, 89 (1963);P. Alsing, H. J. Carmichael, Quantum Opt. 3, 13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexhage, K. H.

K. H. Drexhage, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam1974), Vol. 22, p. 163; E. A. Hinds, in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 28, D. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), p. 237.
[CrossRef]

Dreyer, J.

M. Brune, F. Schmidtkaler, A. Maali, J. Dreyer, E. Hagley, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800 (1996); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagley, E.

M. Brune, F. Schmidtkaler, A. Maali, J. Dreyer, E. Hagley, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800 (1996); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haroche, S.

M. Brune, F. Schmidtkaler, A. Maali, J. Dreyer, E. Hagley, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800 (1996); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brune, P. Nussenzveig, F. Schmidtkaler, F. Bernadot, A. Maali, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3339 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Haroche, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, Europhys. Lett. 14, 19 (1991); B. G. Englert, J. Schwinger, A. O. Barut, M. O. Scully, Europhys. Lett. 14, 25 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hood, C. J.

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itano, W. M.

Jaynes, E. T.

E. T. Jaynes, F. W. Cummings, Proc. IEEE 51, 89 (1963);P. Alsing, H. J. Carmichael, Quantum Opt. 3, 13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

Q. A. Turchette, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B 60, S1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Parkins, P. Marte, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3095 (1993); C. K. Law, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1055 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lange, W.

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lugiato, L. A.

L. A. Lugiato, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1984), Vol. 21, p. 71.
[CrossRef]

Maali, A.

M. Brune, F. Schmidtkaler, A. Maali, J. Dreyer, E. Hagley, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800 (1996); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brune, P. Nussenzveig, F. Schmidtkaler, F. Bernadot, A. Maali, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3339 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mabuchi, H.

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marte, P.

A. S. Parkins, P. Marte, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3095 (1993); C. K. Law, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1055 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milburn, G. J.

H. M. Wiseman, G. J. Milburn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nussenzveig, P.

M. Brune, P. Nussenzveig, F. Schmidtkaler, F. Bernadot, A. Maali, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3339 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozawa, M.

M. Ozawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 385 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parkins, A. S.

A. S. Parkins, P. Marte, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3095 (1993); C. K. Law, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1055 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raab, E. L.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raimond, J. M.

M. Brune, F. Schmidtkaler, A. Maali, J. Dreyer, E. Hagley, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800 (1996); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brune, P. Nussenzveig, F. Schmidtkaler, F. Bernadot, A. Maali, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3339 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Haroche, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, Europhys. Lett. 14, 19 (1991); B. G. Englert, J. Schwinger, A. O. Barut, M. O. Scully, Europhys. Lett. 14, 25 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rempe, G.

G. Rempe, Appl. Phys. B 60, 233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Rempe, F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2783 (1990); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidtkaler, F.

M. Brune, F. Schmidtkaler, A. Maali, J. Dreyer, E. Hagley, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800 (1996); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brune, P. Nussenzveig, F. Schmidtkaler, F. Bernadot, A. Maali, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3339 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Kaler, F.

G. Rempe, F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2783 (1990); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Storey, P.

P. Storey, M. Collett, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 472 (1992); M.A.M. Marte, P. Zoller, Appl. Phys. B 54, 477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, R. J.

Q. A. Turchette, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B 60, S1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Turchette, Q. A.

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. A. Turchette, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B 60, S1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walls, D. F.

P. Storey, M. Collett, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 472 (1992); M.A.M. Marte, P. Zoller, Appl. Phys. B 54, 477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

G. Rempe, F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2783 (1990); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

Wiseman, H. M.

H. M. Wiseman, G. J. Milburn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoller, P.

A. S. Parkins, P. Marte, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3095 (1993); C. K. Law, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1055 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. Rempe, Appl. Phys. B 60, 233 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, Appl. Phys. B 60, S1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

S. Haroche, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, Europhys. Lett. 14, 19 (1991); B. G. Englert, J. Schwinger, A. O. Barut, M. O. Scully, Europhys. Lett. 14, 25 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

H. M. Wiseman, G. J. Milburn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 548 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ozawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 385 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rempe, F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2783 (1990); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brune, F. Schmidtkaler, A. Maali, J. Dreyer, E. Hagley, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1800 (1996); see also Ref. 3.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Parkins, P. Marte, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3095 (1993); C. K. Law, J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1055 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. A. Turchette, C. J. Hood, W. Lange, H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4710 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brune, P. Nussenzveig, F. Schmidtkaler, F. Bernadot, A. Maali, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3339 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Storey, M. Collett, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 472 (1992); M.A.M. Marte, P. Zoller, Appl. Phys. B 54, 477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

E. T. Jaynes, F. W. Cummings, Proc. IEEE 51, 89 (1963);P. Alsing, H. J. Carmichael, Quantum Opt. 3, 13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. J. Carmichael, An Open Systems Approach to Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).

K. H. Drexhage, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam1974), Vol. 22, p. 163; E. A. Hinds, in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 28, D. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), p. 237.
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lugiato, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1984), Vol. 21, p. 71.
[CrossRef]

See Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics, P. R. Berman, ed. (Academic, San Diego, 1994), p. 203.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experiment. The cesium MOT lies 7 mm above the cavity axis, the mirror substrate diameter is 3 mm, and the cavity length is 108 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-varying cavity transmissions after a cesium MOT is dropped, normalized to probe power P0 transmitted through the empty cavity. For these data P0 corresponds to ≈2 photons in the empty cavity, and ωa = ωc = ωL (see text). Inset: histogram of atom arrival times compiled from 450 consecutive trap–drop cycles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Six examples of transit signals associated with the passage of individual atoms through the optical cavity. The data are normalized and taken with the same parameters as for Fig. 2, except that P0 corresponds to three intracavity photons.

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