Abstract

Dynamic optical nonlinearities are investigated with a dual-beam (pulsed-pump, cw probe) Z-scan technique. Monitoring of probe transmission after strong pump excitation permits determination of time-varying parameters such as nonlinear refraction n(I, t) and absorption α(I, t). Continuous time resolution provides an efficient means of measuring and distinguishing fast and slow nonlinear mechanisms such as electronic, free-carrier, and thermal effects observed in semiconductors. We demonstrate this technique in CdTe and measure bound-electronic refraction; two-photon absorption; free-carrier refraction, absorption, and diffusion; thermal refraction and temperature changes; and related time constants.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C, 1995), p. 112.
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  6. J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009 (1994).
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1995

D. O. Caplan, P. Kumar, Proc. SPIE 2622, 244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

1991

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980

V. Kremenitskii, S. Odoulov, M. Soskin, Phys. Status Solidi 57, K71 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

R. G. Harris, G. T. Johnston, G. A. Kepple, P. C. Krok, H. Mukai, Appl. Opt. 16, 437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Canto-Said, E. J.

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Caplan, D. O.

D. O. Caplan, P. Kumar, Proc. SPIE 2622, 244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. O. Caplan, G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ‘96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1996), paper CMC2.

Castillo, J.

Cho, W. R.

Hagan, D.

Hagan, D. J.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C, 1995), p. 112.

Harris, R. G.

R. G. Harris, G. T. Johnston, G. A. Kepple, P. C. Krok, H. Mukai, Appl. Opt. 16, 437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, G. T.

R. G. Harris, G. T. Johnston, G. A. Kepple, P. C. Krok, H. Mukai, Appl. Opt. 16, 437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kanter, G. S.

D. O. Caplan, G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ‘96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1996), paper CMC2.

Kepple, G. A.

R. G. Harris, G. T. Johnston, G. A. Kepple, P. C. Krok, H. Mukai, Appl. Opt. 16, 437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

Kim, U.

Kozich, V. P.

Kremenitskii, V.

V. Kremenitskii, S. Odoulov, M. Soskin, Phys. Status Solidi 57, K71 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Krok, P. C.

R. G. Harris, G. T. Johnston, G. A. Kepple, P. C. Krok, H. Mukai, Appl. Opt. 16, 437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

D. O. Caplan, P. Kumar, Proc. SPIE 2622, 244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. O. Caplan, G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ‘96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1996), paper CMC2.

Lee, K. H.

Marcoano, A.

Mukai, H.

R. G. Harris, G. T. Johnston, G. A. Kepple, P. C. Krok, H. Mukai, Appl. Opt. 16, 437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Odoulov, S.

V. Kremenitskii, S. Odoulov, M. Soskin, Phys. Status Solidi 57, K71 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

Park, S. H.

Said, A.

Said, A. A.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Soskin, M.

V. Kremenitskii, S. Odoulov, M. Soskin, Phys. Status Solidi 57, K71 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E.

Van Stryland, E. W.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C, 1995), p. 112.

Wang, J.

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T.

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C, 1995), p. 112.

Young, J.

A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. Hagan, J. Young, E. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

R. G. Harris, G. T. Johnston, G. A. Kepple, P. C. Krok, H. Mukai, Appl. Opt. 16, 437 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

E. J. Canto-Said, D. J. Hagan, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2274 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Status Solidi

V. Kremenitskii, S. Odoulov, M. Soskin, Phys. Status Solidi 57, K71 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

D. O. Caplan, P. Kumar, Proc. SPIE 2622, 244 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C, 1995), p. 112.

D. O. Caplan, G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO ‘96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1996), paper CMC2.

M. Bass, ed., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Vol. II, p. 33.52.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CWZ-scan setup: BS's, beam splitters; PBS's, polarization beam splitters; HWP, half-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Closed-aperture transmission time trace for one z position, illustrating the broad range of time scales in semiconductor nonlinearities. The inset shows a magnified time trace in the vicinity of the pump arrival, which consisted of eight mode-locked pulses to increase the observed thermal effects. Fast (ps) TPA leads to FCR (in ns) and FCA (ns), followed by the onset of thermal effects (in μs).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Closed-aperture CWZ-scan transmission surface for S = 0.4. Left, experimental CWZ-scan response to a single 120-ps pump pulse with Ipeak = 0.6 GW/cm2. Right, theoretical fit for σr = −1.1 × 10−20 cm3, σa = 1.3 × 10−16 cm2, β = 31 cm2/GW, and τR = 65 ns.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Measured Parameters for CdTe with Those Previously Reporteda

Equations (7)

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Δ Φ nl z = k ( γ I p + σ r N + G T ) ,
I p , s z = ( α 0 + β I p + σ a N ) I p , s .
N t = β I p 2 2 ω N τ R + D N 2 N ,
T t = 1 ρ C p [ β I p 2 2 ω ( 2 ω E g ) + σ a N I p + η N E g τ R ] + D T 2 T ,
T ( 1 ) = T [ 1 exp ( t / τ T ) ] .
I p ( r , z , t , z = 0 ) = I peak exp [ 2 r 2 w ( z ) 2 ( t t 0 ) 2 ] 1 + z 2 / z 0 2 ,
T ( z , t ) = P out ( z , t ) S P in = 4 0 r a I s ( r , z , t , L ) r d r S P in .

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