Abstract

We demonstrate what we believe to be the first experimental observation of self-trapping and self-deflection of a planar optical beam by the photorefractive effect in a semiconductor. The semiconductor material is indium phosphide doped with iron. We show that the observed focusing and defocusing effects follow the component of the two-wave-mixing space charge field that is in phase with the intensity pattern, whereas the spatial beam deflection effects follow the 90°-shifted component.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1996

1995

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, M. J. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fisher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

1989

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1982

Aitchison, J. S.

Carvalho, M. J.

D. N. Christodoulides, M. J. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

D. N. Christodoulides, M. J. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fisher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Porto, P.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feinberg, J.

Fisher, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fisher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garret, M. H.

Gravey, P.

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leach, P.

Mainguet, B.

Marquez Aguilar, P. A.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozkul, C.

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Picoli, G.

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

M. F. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fisher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

Shih, M. F.

M. F. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shultz, J. L.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S. R.

S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, M. Shih, G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vieux, V.

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fisher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

D. N. Christodoulides, M. J. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 46 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

S. R. Singh, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Commun. 118, 569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fisher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Real and imaginary parts of the normalized TWM space charge field in InP:Fe at 1.06 μm calculated with formula 18 from Ref. 10. m is the modulation rate of the intensity grating. E0 = 10 kV/cm; T = 297 K; grating spacing = 10 μm; [Fe2+] nt0 = 0.5 × 1016 cm−3; [Fe3+]pT0 = 6 × 1016 cm−3; and hole and electron photoionization cross sections σn0 = 6 × 10−18 cm2, σp0 = 1 × 10−17 cm2. Ires = 38 mW/cm2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized image of the beam at the input face of the crystal (left), at the exit face with no applied field (middle), and with 9 kV/cm (5 mm) or −9 kV/cm (10 mm) applied field at 1.3-μm wavelength (right). The power of the beam is ∼15% higher for a 10-mm-long crystal than for a 5-mm-long as a result of absorption difference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Horizontal cross sections of the beam at the input face and at the exit face of the crystal with E0 = 0 and horizontal cross sections of the beam at the exit face for E0 = ±5.5 kV/cm and E0 = ±9 kV/cm for various optical intensities. Trapping is observed for I = 12 mW/cm2 and 9 kV/cm and for I = 80 mW/cm2 and −9 kV/cm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Width of the beam at the exit face as a function of optical intensity for (a) E0 = −5.5 kV/cm, E0 = −9 kV/cm and for (b) E0 = 5.5 kV/cm, E0 = 9 kV/cm. Horizontal solid lines, beam width without applied field; vertical dotted line, Ires.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatial shift of the beam at the exit faces as a function of optical intensity for (a) E0 = −5.5 kV/cm, E0 = −9 kV/cm and (b) E0 = 5.5 kV/cm, E0 = 9 kV/cm. Vertical dotted line, Ires.

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