Abstract

We have developed an advanced Kirkpartrick–Baez (AKB) x-ray microscope to diagnose laser-produced plasmas. The AKB microscope is composed of two pairs of hyperbolic and elliptic mirrors to avoid spherical aberration and field obliquity. The spatial response of the microscope has been measured by x-ray backlighting a fine grid with laser-plasma x rays. A spatial resolution of better than 3 μm has been obtained with 2.5-keV x rays over the field of 800 μm at a magnification of 25. This microscope has been applied for laser implosion experiments, resulting in high-resolution images of the compressed cores.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Kirkpatrick, A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Seward, J. Dent, M. Boyle, L. Koppel, T. Harper, P. Stoering, A. Toor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 464 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. J. Marshall, Q. Su, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 725 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, presented at the 22nd European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter, Paris1993.
  5. H. Wolter, Ann. Phys. 10, 94 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Aoki, H. Yamaji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1768 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. A. Remington, S. G. Glendinning, R. J. Wallace, S. Rothman, R. Morales, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5080 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Kodama, N. Ikeda, Y. Kato, Y. Katori, T. Iwai, K. Takeshi, Proc. SPIE 2523, 165 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Kodama, H. Shiraga, T. Matsushita, M. Miyanaga, M. Nakai, H. Azechi, K. Mima, Y. Kato, “Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick–Baez x-ray microscope,” in Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (to be published).
  11. Y. Suzuki, F. Uchida, Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1660 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (2)

F. J. Marshall, Q. Su, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 725 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, N. Ikeda, Y. Kato, Y. Katori, T. Iwai, K. Takeshi, Proc. SPIE 2523, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. A. Remington, S. G. Glendinning, R. J. Wallace, S. Rothman, R. Morales, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Y. Suzuki, F. Uchida, Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1660 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Aoki, H. Yamaji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1768 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

F. Seward, J. Dent, M. Boyle, L. Koppel, T. Harper, P. Stoering, A. Toor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 464 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

H. Wolter, Ann. Phys. 10, 94 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

Aoki, S.

S. Aoki, H. Yamaji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1768 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Azechi, H.

R. Kodama, H. Shiraga, T. Matsushita, M. Miyanaga, M. Nakai, H. Azechi, K. Mima, Y. Kato, “Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick–Baez x-ray microscope,” in Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (to be published).

Baez, A. V.

Boyle, M.

F. Seward, J. Dent, M. Boyle, L. Koppel, T. Harper, P. Stoering, A. Toor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 464 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bridou, F.

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, presented at the 22nd European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter, Paris1993.

Dalmasso, J. M.

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, presented at the 22nd European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter, Paris1993.

Dent, J.

F. Seward, J. Dent, M. Boyle, L. Koppel, T. Harper, P. Stoering, A. Toor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 464 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Glendinning, S. G.

B. A. Remington, S. G. Glendinning, R. J. Wallace, S. Rothman, R. Morales, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harper, T.

F. Seward, J. Dent, M. Boyle, L. Koppel, T. Harper, P. Stoering, A. Toor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 464 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, S.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, Y.

Y. Suzuki, F. Uchida, Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1660 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, T.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, N.

R. Kodama, N. Ikeda, Y. Kato, Y. Katori, T. Iwai, K. Takeshi, Proc. SPIE 2523, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, T.

R. Kodama, N. Ikeda, Y. Kato, Y. Katori, T. Iwai, K. Takeshi, Proc. SPIE 2523, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

R. Kodama, N. Ikeda, Y. Kato, Y. Katori, T. Iwai, K. Takeshi, Proc. SPIE 2523, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, H. Shiraga, T. Matsushita, M. Miyanaga, M. Nakai, H. Azechi, K. Mima, Y. Kato, “Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick–Baez x-ray microscope,” in Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (to be published).

Katori, Y.

R. Kodama, N. Ikeda, Y. Kato, Y. Katori, T. Iwai, K. Takeshi, Proc. SPIE 2523, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kii, T.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, P.

Kodama, R.

R. Kodama, N. Ikeda, Y. Kato, Y. Katori, T. Iwai, K. Takeshi, Proc. SPIE 2523, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, H. Shiraga, T. Matsushita, M. Miyanaga, M. Nakai, H. Azechi, K. Mima, Y. Kato, “Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick–Baez x-ray microscope,” in Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (to be published).

Koppel, L.

F. Seward, J. Dent, M. Boyle, L. Koppel, T. Harper, P. Stoering, A. Toor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 464 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kunieda, H.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Makino, F.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Marioge, J. P.

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, presented at the 22nd European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter, Paris1993.

Marshall, F. J.

F. J. Marshall, Q. Su, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 725 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

R. Kodama, H. Shiraga, T. Matsushita, M. Miyanaga, M. Nakai, H. Azechi, K. Mima, Y. Kato, “Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick–Baez x-ray microscope,” in Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (to be published).

Mima, K.

R. Kodama, H. Shiraga, T. Matsushita, M. Miyanaga, M. Nakai, H. Azechi, K. Mima, Y. Kato, “Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick–Baez x-ray microscope,” in Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (to be published).

Miyanaga, M.

R. Kodama, H. Shiraga, T. Matsushita, M. Miyanaga, M. Nakai, H. Azechi, K. Mima, Y. Kato, “Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick–Baez x-ray microscope,” in Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (to be published).

Morales, R.

B. A. Remington, S. G. Glendinning, R. J. Wallace, S. Rothman, R. Morales, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagase, F.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, M.

R. Kodama, H. Shiraga, T. Matsushita, M. Miyanaga, M. Nakai, H. Azechi, K. Mima, Y. Kato, “Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick–Baez x-ray microscope,” in Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (to be published).

Remington, B. A.

B. A. Remington, S. G. Glendinning, R. J. Wallace, S. Rothman, R. Morales, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, S.

B. A. Remington, S. G. Glendinning, R. J. Wallace, S. Rothman, R. Morales, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sato, N.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sauneuf, R.

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, presented at the 22nd European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter, Paris1993.

Schirmann, D.

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, presented at the 22nd European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter, Paris1993.

Seward, F.

F. Seward, J. Dent, M. Boyle, L. Koppel, T. Harper, P. Stoering, A. Toor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 464 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shiraga, H.

R. Kodama, H. Shiraga, T. Matsushita, M. Miyanaga, M. Nakai, H. Azechi, K. Mima, Y. Kato, “Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick–Baez x-ray microscope,” in Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (to be published).

Stoering, P.

F. Seward, J. Dent, M. Boyle, L. Koppel, T. Harper, P. Stoering, A. Toor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 464 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Su, Q.

F. J. Marshall, Q. Su, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 725 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

Y. Suzuki, F. Uchida, Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1660 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takeshi, K.

R. Kodama, N. Ikeda, Y. Kato, Y. Katori, T. Iwai, K. Takeshi, Proc. SPIE 2523, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, Y.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Toor, A.

F. Seward, J. Dent, M. Boyle, L. Koppel, T. Harper, P. Stoering, A. Toor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 464 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, F.

Y. Suzuki, F. Uchida, Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1660 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, R. J.

B. A. Remington, S. G. Glendinning, R. J. Wallace, S. Rothman, R. Morales, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, Ann. Phys. 10, 94 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Yamaji, H.

S. Aoki, H. Yamaji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1768 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

H. Wolter, Ann. Phys. 10, 94 (1952).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. Aoki, H. Yamaji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1768 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Kunieda, S. Hayakawa, T. Hirano, T. Kii, F. Nagase, N. Sato, Y. Tawara, F. Makino, K. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1292 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Suzuki, F. Uchida, Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1660 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Kodama, N. Ikeda, Y. Kato, Y. Katori, T. Iwai, K. Takeshi, Proc. SPIE 2523, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

B. A. Remington, S. G. Glendinning, R. J. Wallace, S. Rothman, R. Morales, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Seward, J. Dent, M. Boyle, L. Koppel, T. Harper, P. Stoering, A. Toor, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 464 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Marshall, Q. Su, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 725 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Sauneuf, J. M. Dalmasso, D. Schirmann, J. P. Marioge, F. Bridou, presented at the 22nd European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter, Paris1993.

R. Kodama, H. Shiraga, T. Matsushita, M. Miyanaga, M. Nakai, H. Azechi, K. Mima, Y. Kato, “Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick–Baez x-ray microscope,” in Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of an AKB microscope: (a) arrangement of the mirrors, (b) cross sections in the horizontal and the vertical planes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured spatial resolution of the AKB microscope versus the horizontal position in the visual field (filled squares). The dotted curve shows the calculated resolution assuming perfect mirror conditions. Calculations taking account of the measured surface shapes of the mirrors are shown by the open triangles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modulation-transfer function determined from the experimental data (solid curve) and (dotted curve) calculation result taking into account the measured surface shapes of all the mirrors but not the assembly errors of the mirrors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

X-ray images of a core plasma of a laser-imploded plastic shell target obtained with (a) the x-ray pinhole camera and (b) the AKB microscope, observed from different directions.

Equations (1)

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R ( x ) = R ins + R scatt = 1 1 + α [ exp ( x 2 2 σ 1 2 ) + α exp ( x 2 2 σ 2 2 ) ] ,

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