Abstract

We have developed a novel method of time-of-flight (TOF) photoelectron spectroscopy that permits observation of multiphoton ionizations with extremely high precision, especially for low-probability events. By scanning the laser-produced ionization region across a pinhole we can select specific laser peak intensities. The volumes occupied by low intensities rise rapidly compared with traditional straight TOF spectroscopy, resulting in high signal gains. This technique presents a new way of observing fundamental laser–matter interactions.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. VIII, pp. 431–460.
  2. P. Kruit, F. H. Read, J. Phys. E 16, 313 ( 1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. J. Trevor, L. D. Van Woerkom, R. R. Freeman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051 ( 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Hansch, J. R. Norby, S. H. Evans, L. D. Van Woerkom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5512 ( 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 ( 1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

P. Hansch, J. R. Norby, S. H. Evans, L. D. Van Woerkom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5512 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. J. Trevor, L. D. Van Woerkom, R. R. Freeman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051 ( 1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 ( 1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

P. Kruit, F. H. Read, J. Phys. E 16, 313 ( 1983).
[CrossRef]

Berkowitz, J.

J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. VIII, pp. 431–460.

Bucksbaum, P. H.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 ( 1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darack, S.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 ( 1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, S. H.

P. Hansch, J. R. Norby, S. H. Evans, L. D. Van Woerkom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5512 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

D. J. Trevor, L. D. Van Woerkom, R. R. Freeman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051 ( 1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 ( 1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geusic, M. E.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 ( 1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, P.

P. Hansch, J. R. Norby, S. H. Evans, L. D. Van Woerkom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5512 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Kruit, P.

P. Kruit, F. H. Read, J. Phys. E 16, 313 ( 1983).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 ( 1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norby, J. R.

P. Hansch, J. R. Norby, S. H. Evans, L. D. Van Woerkom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5512 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Read, F. H.

P. Kruit, F. H. Read, J. Phys. E 16, 313 ( 1983).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, D.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 ( 1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trevor, D. J.

D. J. Trevor, L. D. Van Woerkom, R. R. Freeman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051 ( 1989).
[CrossRef]

Van Woerkom, L. D.

P. Hansch, J. R. Norby, S. H. Evans, L. D. Van Woerkom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5512 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Trevor, L. D. Van Woerkom, R. R. Freeman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051 ( 1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

P. Kruit, F. H. Read, J. Phys. E 16, 313 ( 1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092 ( 1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

D. J. Trevor, L. D. Van Woerkom, R. R. Freeman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1051 ( 1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Hansch, J. R. Norby, S. H. Evans, L. D. Van Woerkom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5512 ( 1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979), Chap. VIII, pp. 431–460.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup of the TOF spectrometer. The focusing lens can be moved by means of a translation stage to scan the ionization volume across the pinhole at the front of the flight tube. MCP, microchannel plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity contours for which (a) the photoelectron signal is dominated by ionizations at the peak intensity (traditional TOF spectroscopy) and (b) the same intensity range as in (a), which can be selected through ISS at a much higher peak intensity, resulting in a gain that is due to the larger volume.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Volumetric gain for the ISS technique versus traditional TOF spectroscopy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photoelectron spectra of Xe with 800-nm 140-fs pulses at various intensities ranging from 5 × 1012 to 2 × 1013 W/cm2 obtained by translation of the focusing lens. The vertical lines at the top indicate the observed f and p Rydberg states.

Equations (2)

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I ( r , z , t ) = I 0 [ r 0 ω ( z ) ] 2 exp { 2 [ r ω ( z ) ] 2 2 ( t τ ) 2 } ,
V ( Δ I , I 0 ) = π z 0 r 0 2 [ 4 3 ( Δ I I 0 Δ I ) 1 / 2 + 2 9 ( Δ I I 0 Δ I ) 3 / 2 4 3 tan 1 ( Δ I I 0 Δ I ) 1 / 2 ] .

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