Abstract

Amplitude noise spectra from the nonclassical output of an injection-locked low-temperature quantum-well laser analyzed along orthogonal polarization axes reveals correlated polarization-dependent noise. Using polarization-preserving balanced homodyne detection to suppress these effects, we demonstrate photon-number fluctuations 4.5 dB below the semiclassical shot-noise limit (within 95% of the expected squeezing based on the device efficiency). Polarization mixing through birefringent components and, more significantly, correlated fluctuations originating in the laser gain medium are shown to account for the observations.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 ( 1987); S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 ( 1988);Opt. Lett. 14, 1045 ( 1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867 ( 1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. H. Richardson, R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 400 ( 1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, D. Craig, D. R. Scifres, Opt. Lett. 18, 379, 2141 ( 1993).
  5. H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 3951 ( 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Kitching, A. Yariv, Y. Shevy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372 ( 1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 ( 1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A. 46, 2757 ( 1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Van Haeringer, Phys. Rev. 158, 256 ( 1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728 ( 1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. P. Agrawal, N. K. Dutta, Long-Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, are preparing a paper describing this analysis.
  13. T. C. Damen, L. Vina, J. E. Cunningham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432 ( 1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. Kitching, A. Yariv, Y. Shevy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372 ( 1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728 ( 1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, D. Craig, D. R. Scifres, Opt. Lett. 18, 379, 2141 ( 1993).

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 3951 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A. 46, 2757 ( 1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867 ( 1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Damen, L. Vina, J. E. Cunningham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432 ( 1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. H. Richardson, R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 400 ( 1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 ( 1987); S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 ( 1988);Opt. Lett. 14, 1045 ( 1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 ( 1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

W. Van Haeringer, Phys. Rev. 158, 256 ( 1967).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, N. K. Dutta, Long-Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Craig, D.

M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, D. Craig, D. R. Scifres, Opt. Lett. 18, 379, 2141 ( 1993).

Cunningham, J. E.

T. C. Damen, L. Vina, J. E. Cunningham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432 ( 1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damen, T. C.

T. C. Damen, L. Vina, J. E. Cunningham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432 ( 1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutta, N. K.

G. P. Agrawal, N. K. Dutta, Long-Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Q.

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728 ( 1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, M. J.

M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, D. Craig, D. R. Scifres, Opt. Lett. 18, 379, 2141 ( 1993).

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 3951 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, S.

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A. 46, 2757 ( 1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itaya, Y.

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 ( 1987); S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 ( 1988);Opt. Lett. 14, 1045 ( 1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilper, D. C.

D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, are preparing a paper describing this analysis.

Kitching, J.

J. Kitching, A. Yariv, Y. Shevy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372 ( 1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machida, S.

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A. 46, 2757 ( 1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867 ( 1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 ( 1987); S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 ( 1988);Opt. Lett. 14, 1045 ( 1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 ( 1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moloney, J. V.

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728 ( 1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, O.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 ( 1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohzu, H.

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A. 46, 2757 ( 1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, W. H.

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867 ( 1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Richardson, R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 400 ( 1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

San Miguel, M.

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728 ( 1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scifres, D. R.

M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, D. Craig, D. R. Scifres, Opt. Lett. 18, 379, 2141 ( 1993).

Shelby, R. M.

W. H. Richardson, R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 400 ( 1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shevy, Y.

J. Kitching, A. Yariv, Y. Shevy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372 ( 1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steel, D. G.

M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, D. Craig, D. R. Scifres, Opt. Lett. 18, 379, 2141 ( 1993).

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 3951 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, are preparing a paper describing this analysis.

Van Haeringer, W.

W. Van Haeringer, Phys. Rev. 158, 256 ( 1967).
[CrossRef]

Vina, L.

T. C. Damen, L. Vina, J. E. Cunningham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432 ( 1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 3951 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, D. Craig, D. R. Scifres, Opt. Lett. 18, 379, 2141 ( 1993).

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A. 46, 2757 ( 1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867 ( 1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 ( 1987); S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 ( 1988);Opt. Lett. 14, 1045 ( 1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 ( 1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

J. Kitching, A. Yariv, Y. Shevy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372 ( 1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

M. J. Freeman, H. Wang, D. G. Steel, D. Craig, D. R. Scifres, Opt. Lett. 18, 379, 2141 ( 1993).

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. Van Haeringer, Phys. Rev. 158, 256 ( 1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728 ( 1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 ( 1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

S. Inoue, H. Ohzu, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A. 46, 2757 ( 1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

T. C. Damen, L. Vina, J. E. Cunningham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432 ( 1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 3951 ( 1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Kitching, A. Yariv, Y. Shevy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372 ( 1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 ( 1987); S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 ( 1988);Opt. Lett. 14, 1045 ( 1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867 ( 1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Richardson, R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 400 ( 1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, N. K. Dutta, Long-Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, are preparing a paper describing this analysis.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: QW, quantum-well laser; ISO, isolator; FR, Fresnel rhomb; COL, collimating lens; NPBS, nonpolarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photocurrent power spectra for linearly polarized output parallel (trace B) and perpendicular (trace C) to the laser junction and (trace A) the unanalyzed laser output. SNL is the measured shot-noise level for both the parallel-polarized and the unanalyzed fields. Spectrum analyzer, 300 kHz resolution bandwidth (RBW), 3 kHz video-filter (VF), 10-scan average, (b) Photocurrent power spectrum for laser optimized for maximum squeezing (4.5 dB). The trace labeled Laser Noise is the unanalyzed laser noise; spectrum analyzer, 100 kHz RBW, 10 kHz VF, no average. The electronic thermal noise has been subtracted from each trace.

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