Abstract

An additive-pulse mode-locked Nd:YAG laser is studied experimentally and numerically. We observe dynamic instabilities such as period doubling, quasi-periodicity, and high-dimensional chaos. Dependence on control parameters such as peak nonlinear phase shift and cavity-length mismatch are discussed. We provide evidence for instabilities in the temporal profiles of the individual pulses.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Sucha, S. R. Bolton, S. Weiss, D. S. Chemla, Opt. Lett. 20, 1794 (1995); IEEE LEOS Newsletter (December1995), p. 8–9.
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    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Steinmeyer, A. Buchholz, M. Hänsel, M. Heuer, A. Schwache, F. Mitschke, Phys. Rev. A 52, 830 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Steinmeyer, D. Jaspert, F. Mitschke, Opt. Commun. 104, 379 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Mitschke, G. Steinmeyer, M. Ostermeyer, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, Appl. Phys. B 56, 335 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).
  7. F. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2242 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1995

1994

G. Steinmeyer, D. Jaspert, F. Mitschke, Opt. Commun. 104, 379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. Mitschke, G. Steinmeyer, M. Ostermeyer, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, Appl. Phys. B 56, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

1986

F. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2242 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980

K. Ikeda, H. Daido, O. Akimoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 709 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).

Akimoto, O.

K. Ikeda, H. Daido, O. Akimoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 709 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bolton, S. R.

Buchholz, A.

G. Steinmeyer, A. Buchholz, M. Hänsel, M. Heuer, A. Schwache, F. Mitschke, Phys. Rev. A 52, 830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

Daido, H.

K. Ikeda, H. Daido, O. Akimoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 709 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

F. Mitschke, G. Steinmeyer, M. Ostermeyer, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, Appl. Phys. B 56, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hänsel, M.

G. Steinmeyer, A. Buchholz, M. Hänsel, M. Heuer, A. Schwache, F. Mitschke, Phys. Rev. A 52, 830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Heuer, M.

G. Steinmeyer, A. Buchholz, M. Hänsel, M. Heuer, A. Schwache, F. Mitschke, Phys. Rev. A 52, 830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, K.

K. Ikeda, H. Daido, O. Akimoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 709 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jaspert, D.

G. Steinmeyer, D. Jaspert, F. Mitschke, Opt. Commun. 104, 379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. Y.

Mitschke, F.

G. Steinmeyer, A. Buchholz, M. Hänsel, M. Heuer, A. Schwache, F. Mitschke, Phys. Rev. A 52, 830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Steinmeyer, D. Jaspert, F. Mitschke, Opt. Commun. 104, 379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Mitschke, G. Steinmeyer, M. Ostermeyer, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, Appl. Phys. B 56, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2242 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

F. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2242 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ostermeyer, M.

F. Mitschke, G. Steinmeyer, M. Ostermeyer, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, Appl. Phys. B 56, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schwache, A.

G. Steinmeyer, A. Buchholz, M. Hänsel, M. Heuer, A. Schwache, F. Mitschke, Phys. Rev. A 52, 830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

G. Steinmeyer, A. Buchholz, M. Hänsel, M. Heuer, A. Schwache, F. Mitschke, Phys. Rev. A 52, 830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Steinmeyer, D. Jaspert, F. Mitschke, Opt. Commun. 104, 379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Mitschke, G. Steinmeyer, M. Ostermeyer, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, Appl. Phys. B 56, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sucha, G.

Weiss, S.

Welling, H.

F. Mitschke, G. Steinmeyer, M. Ostermeyer, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, Appl. Phys. B 56, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

F. Mitschke, G. Steinmeyer, M. Ostermeyer, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, Appl. Phys. B 56, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

F. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2242 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

G. Steinmeyer, D. Jaspert, F. Mitschke, Opt. Commun. 104, 379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

G. Steinmeyer, A. Buchholz, M. Hänsel, M. Heuer, A. Schwache, F. Mitschke, Phys. Rev. A 52, 830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Ikeda, H. Daido, O. Akimoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 709 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the APM laser. The main cavity between the end mirror (M1) and the output coupler (OC) contains the laser head, a Brewster plate (BP), a pinhole (PH), and an étalon (E). A half-wave plate (λ/2) and a polarizer (P) act as a variable beam splitter. The end mirror of the fiber cavity, M2, is mounted upon a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) for phase control; the error signal is derived from the second harmonic output at D3. L’s, lenses; SHG, second-harmonic generator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of experimentally determined pulsing regimes on cavity mismatch ΔT and average power coupled into the fiber P ¯. Stable pulsing, P1; sidebands, SB; period doubling, P2. The zero-mismatch point was determined by the analysis of sideband frequencies (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of calculated pulsing regimes on cavity-length mismatch and power in the fiber. P4, period four; χ, chaos; other designations as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sequence of pulse profiles, calculated for a P2–SB regime with a slow period of ~30 round trips (fSB = 2.8 MHz). Nine hundred preiterations served to let transients die out. After each round trip the time window was recentered around the center of gravity of the pulse.

Equations (3)

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a M n + 1 = G ^ B ^ ( r a M n + t a F n ) ,
a F n + 1 = l M ^ F ^ l ( t a M n r a F n ) .
f SB = | Δ T | τ p f R κ = f R / τ p .

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