Abstract

A single-mode silver halide symmetric step-index planar waveguide for 10.6 μm is described. We fabricate the waveguide from extruded multimode silver halide fiber by pressing the fiber between metal plates while heating. The device is therefore automatically pigtailed to a fiber, which could ease the difficulties of coupling light into it. We achieved single-mode confinement by suitably adjusting the refractive index of the core and the cladding and by reducing the core thickness to 30 μm. The output radiation from the planar waveguide was measured to confirm single-mode confinement. Silver halide single-mode waveguides for the mid-infrared can be used to enhance sensitivity in fiber-optic evanescent-wave infrared spectroscopy measurements or for the development of mid-infrared single-mode lasers and interferometers.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 26,1201 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Katzir, S. Simony, J. Salzeman, A. Schoenberg, E. Kapon, Opt. Eng. 23, 462 (1984).
  11. I. Paiss, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61,1384 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, Laser Surg. Med. 14,323 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1995 (2)

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, J. Lumin. 65,41 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, Opt. Lett. 20,2417 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

D. Bunimovich, E. Belotserkovsky, A. Katzir, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2731 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, Laser Surg. Med. 14,323 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Lightwave Technol. 11,1889 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 32,2045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

I. Paiss, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61,1384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64,5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

S. Simhony, E. M. Kosower, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 253 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48,499 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

A. Katzir, S. Simony, J. Salzeman, A. Schoenberg, E. Kapon, Opt. Eng. 23, 462 (1984).

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

1950 (1)

Barkay, N.

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Lightwave Technol. 11,1889 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64,5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Belotserkovsky, E.

D. Bunimovich, E. Belotserkovsky, A. Katzir, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2731 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, R. A.

Bunimovich, D.

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, Opt. Lett. 20,2417 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, J. Lumin. 65,41 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, E. Belotserkovsky, A. Katzir, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2731 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 32,2045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyal, O.

O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, Laser Surg. Med. 14,323 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goldwasser, B.

O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, Laser Surg. Med. 14,323 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hocker, G. B.

Kapon, E.

A. Katzir, S. Simony, J. Salzeman, A. Schoenberg, E. Kapon, Opt. Eng. 23, 462 (1984).

Katzir, A.

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, Opt. Lett. 20,2417 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, J. Lumin. 65,41 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, Laser Surg. Med. 14,323 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, E. Belotserkovsky, A. Katzir, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2731 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Lightwave Technol. 11,1889 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 32,2045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Paiss, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61,1384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64,5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 26,1201 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Simhony, E. M. Kosower, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 253 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48,499 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Katzir, S. Simony, J. Salzeman, A. Schoenberg, E. Kapon, Opt. Eng. 23, 462 (1984).

Kosower, E. M.

S. Simhony, E. M. Kosower, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 253 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre, H. C.

Levite, A.

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64,5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moser, F.

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64,5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nagli, L.

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, J. Lumin. 65,41 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, Opt. Lett. 20,2417 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paiss, I.

I. Paiss, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61,1384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pitha, C. A.

C. S. Sahagian, C. A. Pitha, in Compendium on High-Power Infrared Laser Window Materials, LQ-10 Program (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1972), p. 70.

Plyler, E. K.

Sahagian, C. S.

C. S. Sahagian, C. A. Pitha, in Compendium on High-Power Infrared Laser Window Materials, LQ-10 Program (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1972), p. 70.

Salzeman, J.

A. Katzir, S. Simony, J. Salzeman, A. Schoenberg, E. Kapon, Opt. Eng. 23, 462 (1984).

Schoenberg, A.

A. Katzir, S. Simony, J. Salzeman, A. Schoenberg, E. Kapon, Opt. Eng. 23, 462 (1984).

Shaw, H. J.

Shenfeld, O.

O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, Laser Surg. Med. 14,323 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simhony, S.

S. Simhony, E. M. Kosower, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 253 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Simony, S.

A. Katzir, S. Simony, J. Salzeman, A. Schoenberg, E. Kapon, Opt. Eng. 23, 462 (1984).

Stephens, R. E.

Tilton, L. W.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, in Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1985), p. 405.

Zur, A.

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 26,1201 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48,499 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Simhony, E. M. Kosower, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 253 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48,499 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Paiss, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61,1384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64,5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Lightwave Technol. 11,1889 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, J. Lumin. 65,41 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Laser Surg. Med. (1)

O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, Laser Surg. Med. 14,323 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Katzir, S. Simony, J. Salzeman, A. Schoenberg, E. Kapon, Opt. Eng. 23, 462 (1984).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. Bunimovich, E. Belotserkovsky, A. Katzir, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2731 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Yariv, in Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1985), p. 405.

C. S. Sahagian, C. A. Pitha, in Compendium on High-Power Infrared Laser Window Materials, LQ-10 Program (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1972), p. 70.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the planar waveguide. Cladding diameter D1 = 0.9 mm, core diameter D2 = 0.6 mm, transition-region length T = 5 mm, planar waveguide length L = 25 mm, planar waveguide width W = 4 mm. (b) Schematic of the longitudinal cross section.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microphotographs of the cross section of (a) a circular core–cladding (CLAD) silver halide optical fiber (D1 = 0.9 mm, D2 = 0.6 mm) and (b) the planar waveguide tip face.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam profiles of the output radiation from (a) the multimode planar waveguide and (b) the single-mode planar waveguide.

Equations (1)

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V = 2 π a λ ( n core 2 n clad 2 ) 1 / 2 ,

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