Abstract

Films of identically shaped, elongated, and parallel-oriented metal nanoparticles arranged in a regular pattern upon a transparent substrate were produced by use of electron-beam lithography. Because of the strong difference in the particles’ polarizability components, the optical extinction spectra show strong dichroism. Moreover, one can shift the spectral position of the extinction maximum in a wide range from 480 to 600 nm by variation of the particles’ aspect ratio. This result suggests that designed metal particle films can be used as artificial optical thin-film media.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, Phys. Rev. B 48, 18178 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Götz, W. Hoheisel, M. Vollmer, F. Träger, Z. Phys. D 33, 133 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Baba, J. Katsu, M. Miyagi, Opt. Lett. 17, 622 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. U. Kreibig, M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Vol. 25 of Springer Series in Materials Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
  5. T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1673 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 35, 3753 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Baba, M. Miyagi, Opt. Lett. 16, 964 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Baba, R. Yamada, S. Nakao, M. Miyagi, Electron. Lett. 28, 676 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, C. R. Martin, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. G. Craighead, G. A. Niklasson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1134 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  12. T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 18, 63 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1563 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 203, 385 (1904);J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 205, 237 (1906).
  15. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 4th ed. ( Wiley, New York, 1971).
  16. W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg“Thin film by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

1995 (1)

T. Götz, W. Hoheisel, M. Vollmer, F. Träger, Z. Phys. D 33, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, Phys. Rev. B 48, 18178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, C. R. Martin, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

K. Baba, R. Yamada, S. Nakao, M. Miyagi, Electron. Lett. 28, 676 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, J. Katsu, M. Miyagi, Opt. Lett. 17, 622 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 35, 3753 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. G. Craighead, G. A. Niklasson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1134 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1673 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 18, 63 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1904 (1)

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 203, 385 (1904);J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 205, 237 (1906).

Andersson, T.

T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1673 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg“Thin film by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Baba, K.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Craighead, H. G.

H. G. Craighead, G. A. Niklasson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1134 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 35, 3753 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Foss, C. A.

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, C. R. Martin, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, S.

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, Phys. Rev. B 48, 18178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gotschy, W.

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg“Thin film by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Götz, T.

T. Götz, W. Hoheisel, M. Vollmer, F. Träger, Z. Phys. D 33, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 35, 3753 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1673 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hilger, A.

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, Phys. Rev. B 48, 18178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoheisel, W.

T. Götz, W. Hoheisel, M. Vollmer, F. Träger, Z. Phys. D 33, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hornyak, G. L.

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, C. R. Martin, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hövel, H.

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, Phys. Rev. B 48, 18178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Katsu, J.

Kinbara, A.

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 18, 63 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kittel, C.

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 4th ed. ( Wiley, New York, 1971).

Kreibig, U.

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, Phys. Rev. B 48, 18178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Kreibig, M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Vol. 25 of Springer Series in Materials Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).

Leitner, A.

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg“Thin film by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Martin, C. R.

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, C. R. Martin, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell-Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 203, 385 (1904);J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 205, 237 (1906).

Miyagi, M.

Nakao, S.

K. Baba, R. Yamada, S. Nakao, M. Miyagi, Electron. Lett. 28, 676 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Niklasson, G. A.

H. G. Craighead, G. A. Niklasson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1134 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 35, 3753 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stockert, J. A.

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, C. R. Martin, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Träger, F.

T. Götz, W. Hoheisel, M. Vollmer, F. Träger, Z. Phys. D 33, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, M.

T. Götz, W. Hoheisel, M. Vollmer, F. Träger, Z. Phys. D 33, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Kreibig, M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Vol. 25 of Springer Series in Materials Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).

Vonmetz, K.

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg“Thin film by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Warmack, R. J.

P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 35, 3753 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, R.

K. Baba, R. Yamada, S. Nakao, M. Miyagi, Electron. Lett. 28, 676 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 18, 63 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, S.

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1563 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 18, 63 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. G. Craighead, G. A. Niklasson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 1134 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Baba, R. Yamada, S. Nakao, M. Miyagi, Electron. Lett. 28, 676 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Andersson, C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1673 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

C. A. Foss, G. L. Hornyak, J. A. Stockert, C. R. Martin, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 2963 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 203, 385 (1904);J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 205, 237 (1906).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H. Hövel, S. Fritz, A. Hilger, U. Kreibig, Phys. Rev. B 48, 18178 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Royer, J. P. Goudonnet, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 35, 3753 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, A. Kinbara, Thin Solid Films 18, 63 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. D (1)

T. Götz, W. Hoheisel, M. Vollmer, F. Träger, Z. Phys. D 33, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 4th ed. ( Wiley, New York, 1971).

W. Gotschy, K. Vonmetz, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg“Thin film by regular patterns of metal nanoparticles: tailoring the optical properties by nanodesign,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

U. Kreibig, M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, Vol. 25 of Springer Series in Materials Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflection electron microscope pictures of MNPF’s with different particle aspect ratios a/b: (a) 1.64, (b) 2.05, (c) 2.50. A rectangular arrangement pattern with lattice constants da = 190 nm and db = 110 nm is shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction spectra of the MNPF’s shown in Fig. 1: (a) light polarization direction parallel to the particles’ long axis, (b) polarization parallel to the short axis. The aspect ratio (a/b) is 1.64 for curve a, 2.05 for curve b, and 2.50 for curve c.

Equations (3)

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α i = 4 π a b c 1 m 3 m + 3 L i ( 1 m ) , i = x , y , z ,
L i = a b c 2 0 d q ( s i 2 + q ) [ ( q + a ) 2 ( q + b ) 2 ( q + c ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
E loc = E 0 / ( 1 + α β ) ,

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