Abstract

Using a dispersive Faraday bandpass filter, we have upgraded our Na temperature lidar to be capable of 24-h operation. Along with a transmitting telescope to reduce the laser beam divergence to 0.2 mrad, the initial use of this unique narrow-band filter in a lidar receiver allowed us to reduce the detected daytime sky background to a level previously encountered at night, making routine daytime temperature measurements in the mesopause region a reality. The implementation, characterization, and results of what we believe are the first daytime mesopause temperature measurements are reported.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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1995 (3)

1994 (2)

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1771 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 929 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. A. Gelbwaches, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

K. H. Kwon, C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, F. L. Roesler, J. Harlander, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8781 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. H. Frike, U. von Zahn, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

C. Granier, G. Megie, Planet. Space Sci. 30, 169 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Yeh, Appl. Opt. 21, 2069 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarez, R. J.

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 929 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Benson, K.

Bills, R. E.

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Latifi, R. E. Bills, Appl. Opt. 31, 2095 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 929 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, S. H.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, C. Y. She, P. Searcy, E. Korevaar, Opt. Lett. 18, 1019 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, C. Y. She, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 208.

Dick, D. J.

Frike, K. H.

K. H. Frike, U. von Zahn, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, C. S.

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 929 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Kwon, C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, F. L. Roesler, J. Harlander, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8781 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gelbwaches, J. A.

J. A. Gelbwaches, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Granier, C.

C. Granier, G. Megie, Planet. Space Sci. 30, 169 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Harlander, J.

K. H. Kwon, C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, F. L. Roesler, J. Harlander, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8781 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Korevaar, E.

Kwon, K. H.

K. H. Kwon, C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, F. L. Roesler, J. Harlander, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8781 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Latifi, H.

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Latifi, R. E. Bills, Appl. Opt. 31, 2095 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 929 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. S.

Megie, G.

C. Granier, G. Megie, Planet. Space Sci. 30, 169 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Menders, J.

Papen, G. C.

Pfenninger, W. M.

Roesler, F. L.

K. H. Kwon, C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, F. L. Roesler, J. Harlander, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8781 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Searcy, P.

Senft, D. C.

K. H. Kwon, C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, F. L. Roesler, J. Harlander, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8781 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shay, T. M.

She, C. Y.

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, Appl. Opt. 34, 1063 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Yu, C. Y. She, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1771 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, C. Y. She, P. Searcy, E. Korevaar, Opt. Lett. 18, 1019 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Yu, C. Y. She, Appl. Phys. B 57, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Latifi, R. E. Bills, Appl. Opt. 31, 2095 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 929 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, C. Y. She, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 208.

Simonich, M.

von Zahn, U.

K. H. Frike, U. von Zahn, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

Yu, J. R.

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, Appl. Opt. 34, 1063 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Yu, C. Y. She, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1771 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Yu, C. Y. She, Appl. Phys. B 57, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, H. Latifi, R. E. Bills, Appl. Opt. 31, 2095 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 929 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. R. Yu, C. Y. She, Appl. Phys. B 57, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

C. Y. She, J. R. Yu, Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1771 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, H. Latifi, J. R. Yu, R. J. Alvarez, R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 929 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Gelbwaches, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

K. H. Frike, U. von Zahn, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

J. R. Yu, C. Y. She, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 7441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Kwon, C. S. Gardner, D. C. Senft, F. L. Roesler, J. Harlander, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8781 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

C. Y. She, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

C. Granier, G. Megie, Planet. Space Sci. 30, 169 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Chen, C. Y. She, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 208.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the Faraday receiver channel with a fiber-coupled Na-vapor dispersive Faraday filter. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raw lidar returns taken at Fort Collins, Colorado (41° N, 105° W) on October 11, 1995, with 10-min integration at (a) high noon [12 a.m. Mountain Standard Time (MST)] from the Faraday channel, (b) 4 a.m. from the regular channel, and (c) 4 a.m. from the Faraday channel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pathways for resonance backscattering of the laser beam by atmospheric Na atoms. The total angular momentum of the state is denoted F.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calibration curves for the conversion of measured intensity ratio to temperature in the mesopause region with either the regular or the Faraday channel.

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