Abstract

To date, optical diffraction gratings filled with liquid crystals have not produced high (>50%) diffraction efficiencies in nonzero diffractive orders. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis indicates, however, that very high diffraction efficiencies (99% in single-wavelength polarized illumination) are theoretically feasible for this class of device, even when the devices employ rectangular grating profiles. These theoretical predictions with rectangular rather than blazed profiles imply simplified fabrication techniques for experimentally achieving high efficiencies by use of deep-etch submicrometer fabrication techniques.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Jones, G. Nordin, J. Kulick, R. Lindquist, S. Kowel, Proc. SPIE 2406, 154 (1995).
  2. W. Parker, Proc. SPIE 1914, 176 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Omai, H. Takahara, T. Tanaka, “Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal panel with diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,299,289 (March29, 1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. S. Peng, G. M. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1087 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Moharum, D. Pommet, E. Grann, T. Gaylord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1068 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Wu, U. Efron, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 624 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1995

M. Jones, G. Nordin, J. Kulick, R. Lindquist, S. Kowel, Proc. SPIE 2406, 154 (1995).

P. Alvelda, Proc. Soc. Info. Displ. 3/4, 181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bos, J. Chen, J. W. Doane, B. Smith, C. Holton, W. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ., 3/4, 601 (1995).

S. Peng, G. M. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Moharum, D. Pommet, E. Grann, T. Gaylord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1068 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. Gerritsen, Proc. SPIE 2017, 377 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Parker, Proc. SPIE 1914, 176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Katsuma, K. Sato, Proc. SPIE 1914, 212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. Murai, T. Gotah, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizogushi, Proc. SPIE 1665, 230 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

S. Wu, U. Efron, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 624 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

T. Gaylord, M. Moharum, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

1969

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Alvelda, P.

P. Alvelda, Proc. Soc. Info. Displ. 3/4, 181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

P. J. Bos, J. Chen, J. W. Doane, B. Smith, C. Holton, W. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ., 3/4, 601 (1995).

Burckhard, C.

R. Collier, C. Burckhard, L. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971

Chen, J.

P. J. Bos, J. Chen, J. W. Doane, B. Smith, C. Holton, W. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ., 3/4, 601 (1995).

Collier, R.

R. Collier, C. Burckhard, L. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971

Doane, J. W.

P. J. Bos, J. Chen, J. W. Doane, B. Smith, C. Holton, W. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ., 3/4, 601 (1995).

Efron, U.

S. Wu, U. Efron, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 624 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T.

Gerritsen, H.

H. Gerritsen, Proc. SPIE 2017, 377 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W.

P. J. Bos, J. Chen, J. W. Doane, B. Smith, C. Holton, W. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ., 3/4, 601 (1995).

Gotah, T.

H. Murai, T. Gotah, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizogushi, Proc. SPIE 1665, 230 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E.

Hasegawa, E.

H. Murai, T. Gotah, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizogushi, Proc. SPIE 1665, 230 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Holton, C.

P. J. Bos, J. Chen, J. W. Doane, B. Smith, C. Holton, W. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ., 3/4, 601 (1995).

Jones, M.

M. Jones, G. Nordin, J. Kulick, R. Lindquist, S. Kowel, Proc. SPIE 2406, 154 (1995).

Katsuma, H.

H. Katsuma, K. Sato, Proc. SPIE 1914, 212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Kosmopoulos, J.

Kowel, S.

M. Jones, G. Nordin, J. Kulick, R. Lindquist, S. Kowel, Proc. SPIE 2406, 154 (1995).

Kulick, J.

M. Jones, G. Nordin, J. Kulick, R. Lindquist, S. Kowel, Proc. SPIE 2406, 154 (1995).

Lin, L.

R. Collier, C. Burckhard, L. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971

Lindquist, R.

M. Jones, G. Nordin, J. Kulick, R. Lindquist, S. Kowel, Proc. SPIE 2406, 154 (1995).

Mizogushi, K.

H. Murai, T. Gotah, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizogushi, Proc. SPIE 1665, 230 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moharum, M.

Morris, G. M.

Murai, H.

H. Murai, T. Gotah, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizogushi, Proc. SPIE 1665, 230 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G.

M. Jones, G. Nordin, J. Kulick, R. Lindquist, S. Kowel, Proc. SPIE 2406, 154 (1995).

Omai, H.

H. Omai, H. Takahara, T. Tanaka, “Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal panel with diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,299,289 (March29, 1994).

Parker, W.

W. Parker, Proc. SPIE 1914, 176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peng, S.

Pommet, D.

Sakata, H.

H. Sakata, “Liquid-crystal light modulation device,” U.S. patent4,729,640 (March8, 1988).

H. Sakata, “Diffraction-grating-type liquid-crystal display device in viewfinder,” U.S. patent5,299,037 (March29, 1994).

Sato, K.

H. Katsuma, K. Sato, Proc. SPIE 1914, 212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sinderbox, T.

Smith, B.

P. J. Bos, J. Chen, J. W. Doane, B. Smith, C. Holton, W. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ., 3/4, 601 (1995).

Suzuki, M.

H. Murai, T. Gotah, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizogushi, Proc. SPIE 1665, 230 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takahara, H.

H. Omai, H. Takahara, T. Tanaka, “Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal panel with diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,299,289 (March29, 1994).

Tanaka, T.

H. Omai, H. Takahara, T. Tanaka, “Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal panel with diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,299,289 (March29, 1994).

Werlich, H.

Wu, S.

S. Wu, U. Efron, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 624 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yung, B.

Zenginoglou, H.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Wu, U. Efron, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 624 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Proc. IEEE

T. Gaylord, M. Moharum, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ.

P. J. Bos, J. Chen, J. W. Doane, B. Smith, C. Holton, W. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ., 3/4, 601 (1995).

Proc. Soc. Info. Displ.

P. Alvelda, Proc. Soc. Info. Displ. 3/4, 181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

H. Gerritsen, Proc. SPIE 2017, 377 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Murai, T. Gotah, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizogushi, Proc. SPIE 1665, 230 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Jones, G. Nordin, J. Kulick, R. Lindquist, S. Kowel, Proc. SPIE 2406, 154 (1995).

W. Parker, Proc. SPIE 1914, 176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Katsuma, K. Sato, Proc. SPIE 1914, 212 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Sakata, “Liquid-crystal light modulation device,” U.S. patent4,729,640 (March8, 1988).

H. Sakata, “Diffraction-grating-type liquid-crystal display device in viewfinder,” U.S. patent5,299,037 (March29, 1994).

H. Omai, H. Takahara, T. Tanaka, “Polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal panel with diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,299,289 (March29, 1994).

R. Collier, C. Burckhard, L. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an idealized grating device. ITO, indium tin oxide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical DE of a high-spatial-frequency LC-filled diffraction grating as a function of depth.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Maximum Predicted Diffraction Efficiencies for the Sample LC Grating Device under Study

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η = J 1 2 ( ϕ 1 ) .
η = sin 2 ( ϕ 1 ) .
Q = 2 π λ 0 n 0 Λ 2 .
m λ / Λ = sin θ i sin θ d ,
λ = Λ = 0.5 μ m ,
θ i = 30 ° ,
n substrate = 1.5 ,
n o lc = 1.5 ,
n e o lc = 1.7 .

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