Abstract

We present experimental results of photochromic reactions induced by single- and two-photon excitations in a poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film doped with spirobenzopyran. We also demonstrate the operation of a spirobenzopyran-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) planar waveguide, prepared by cast spinning the media onto fused-quartz slides. The following phenomena were shown to take place in this waveguide: single–two-photon coloring, fluorescing, and bleaching. The results indicate that such devices may be suitable for many applications, including optical waveguides, volume optical storage, and optical sensors.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-Y. Huang, B.-W. Tzen, C.-R. Sheu, Y.-N. Chyr, G.-L. Lin, T.-C. Ko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1, 2, 33 (1994).
  2. M. G. Kuzyk, L. Qin, D.J. Welker, Z. Shiliang, C. W. Dirk, Proc. SPIE 2143, 200 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Kippelen, S. N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A.B. Padias, H. K. Hall, Electron. Lett. 29, 21 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 14 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Opt. Lett. 20, 11 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, Science 245, 843 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. E. Ford, S. Hunter, R. Piyaket, Y. Fainman, S. Esener, Proc. SPIE 2026, 604 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Opt. Lett. 20, 11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-Y. Huang, B.-W. Tzen, C.-R. Sheu, Y.-N. Chyr, G.-L. Lin, T.-C. Ko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1, 2, 33 (1994).

M. G. Kuzyk, L. Qin, D.J. Welker, Z. Shiliang, C. W. Dirk, Proc. SPIE 2143, 200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

B. Kippelen, S. N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A.B. Padias, H. K. Hall, Electron. Lett. 29, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ford, S. Hunter, R. Piyaket, Y. Fainman, S. Esener, Proc. SPIE 2026, 604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, Science 245, 843 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, W. W.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Opt. Lett. 20, 11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Opt. Lett. 20, 11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chyr, Y.-N.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-Y. Huang, B.-W. Tzen, C.-R. Sheu, Y.-N. Chyr, G.-L. Lin, T.-C. Ko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1, 2, 33 (1994).

Dirk, C. W.

M. G. Kuzyk, L. Qin, D.J. Welker, Z. Shiliang, C. W. Dirk, Proc. SPIE 2143, 200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S.

J. E. Ford, S. Hunter, R. Piyaket, Y. Fainman, S. Esener, Proc. SPIE 2026, 604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

J. E. Ford, S. Hunter, R. Piyaket, Y. Fainman, S. Esener, Proc. SPIE 2026, 604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J. E.

J. E. Ford, S. Hunter, R. Piyaket, Y. Fainman, S. Esener, Proc. SPIE 2026, 604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-Y. Huang, B.-W. Tzen, C.-R. Sheu, Y.-N. Chyr, G.-L. Lin, T.-C. Ko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1, 2, 33 (1994).

Hall, H. K.

B. Kippelen, S. N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A.B. Padias, H. K. Hall, Electron. Lett. 29, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-Y.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-Y. Huang, B.-W. Tzen, C.-R. Sheu, Y.-N. Chyr, G.-L. Lin, T.-C. Ko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1, 2, 33 (1994).

Hunter, S.

J. E. Ford, S. Hunter, R. Piyaket, Y. Fainman, S. Esener, Proc. SPIE 2026, 604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

B. Kippelen, S. N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A.B. Padias, H. K. Hall, Electron. Lett. 29, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-Y. Huang, B.-W. Tzen, C.-R. Sheu, Y.-N. Chyr, G.-L. Lin, T.-C. Ko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1, 2, 33 (1994).

Kuzyk, M. G.

M. G. Kuzyk, L. Qin, D.J. Welker, Z. Shiliang, C. W. Dirk, Proc. SPIE 2143, 200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-L.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-Y. Huang, B.-W. Tzen, C.-R. Sheu, Y.-N. Chyr, G.-L. Lin, T.-C. Ko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1, 2, 33 (1994).

Lyon, S. R.

B. Kippelen, S. N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A.B. Padias, H. K. Hall, Electron. Lett. 29, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Opt. Lett. 20, 11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Padias, A.B.

B. Kippelen, S. N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A.B. Padias, H. K. Hall, Electron. Lett. 29, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Parthenopoulos, D.

D. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, Science 245, 843 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, S. N.

B. Kippelen, S. N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A.B. Padias, H. K. Hall, Electron. Lett. 29, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Piyaket, R.

J. E. Ford, S. Hunter, R. Piyaket, Y. Fainman, S. Esener, Proc. SPIE 2026, 604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L.

M. G. Kuzyk, L. Qin, D.J. Welker, Z. Shiliang, C. W. Dirk, Proc. SPIE 2143, 200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, P. M.

D. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, Science 245, 843 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, J. C.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, C.-R.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-Y. Huang, B.-W. Tzen, C.-R. Sheu, Y.-N. Chyr, G.-L. Lin, T.-C. Ko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1, 2, 33 (1994).

Shiliang, Z.

M. G. Kuzyk, L. Qin, D.J. Welker, Z. Shiliang, C. W. Dirk, Proc. SPIE 2143, 200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Opt. Lett. 20, 11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Opt. Lett. 20, 11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tzen, B.-W.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-Y. Huang, B.-W. Tzen, C.-R. Sheu, Y.-N. Chyr, G.-L. Lin, T.-C. Ko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1, 2, 33 (1994).

Welker, D.J.

M. G. Kuzyk, L. Qin, D.J. Welker, Z. Shiliang, C. W. Dirk, Proc. SPIE 2143, 200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Kippelen, S. N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A.B. Padias, H. K. Hall, Electron. Lett. 29, 21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1 (1)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-Y. Huang, B.-W. Tzen, C.-R. Sheu, Y.-N. Chyr, G.-L. Lin, T.-C. Ko, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Pt. 1, 2, 33 (1994).

Opt. Lett. (1)

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Opt. Lett. 20, 11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. G. Kuzyk, L. Qin, D.J. Welker, Z. Shiliang, C. W. Dirk, Proc. SPIE 2143, 200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ford, S. Hunter, R. Piyaket, Y. Fainman, S. Esener, Proc. SPIE 2026, 604 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, Science 245, 843 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Waveguiding in a SP/PMMA planar waveguide (notice the guided light extending from the center toward the left of the slide), (b) fluorescence from merocyanine molecules when excited by the low-intensity Ar-ion beam (horizontal line), (c) bleaching with the high-intensity Ar-ion beam (horizontal line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the setup for two-photon-induced coloring in the SP/PMMA waveguide using a counterpropagating pulse scheme. L1, f = 88-mm lens; L2, f = 95-mm lens; M1, M2, mirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Colored spots inside the SP/PMMA planar waveguide. The first spot appears as the dark area to the right. The second spot (on the left) was obtained while the media were displaced, to avoid absorption by the previously colored spot and to demonstrate addressability. (Horizontal white lines are effects from the camera.)

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