Abstract

A new synchronization technique for simultaneous in-line modulation and regeneration of wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) soliton signals in optical fibers is proposed. A specific wavelength-mapping rule makes synchronization compatible with frequency-guiding Fabry–Perot filters. As an example, a 4 × 10 Gbit/s WDM regenerated soliton system is demonstrated numerically. We also show that the technique is fully compatible with dispersion management, which alleviates detrimental WDM collisions. Thus the possibility of combining wavelength-division multiplexing and regeneration opens up new perspectives for ultrahigh-bit-rate transoceanic soliton systems.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Favre, D. LeGuen, M. L. Moulinard, Electron. Lett. 31, 1600 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Aubin, E. Jeanney, T. Montalant, J. Moulu, F. Pirio, J.-B. Thomine, presented at the Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, IOOC'95, Hong Kong, June 26–30, 1995.
  3. L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Suzuki, M. Nakazawa, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 289 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, W. J. Firth, K. Smith, Opt. Commun. 102, 324 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Hasegawa, S. Kumar, Y. Kodama, Opt. Lett. 21, 39 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Forysiak, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, Opt. Lett. 19, 174 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

F. Favre, D. LeGuen, M. L. Moulinard, Electron. Lett. 31, 1600 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, M. Nakazawa, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, W. J. Firth, K. Smith, Opt. Commun. 102, 324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aubin, G.

G. Aubin, E. Jeanney, T. Montalant, J. Moulu, F. Pirio, J.-B. Thomine, presented at the Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, IOOC'95, Hong Kong, June 26–30, 1995.

Blow, K. J.

N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, W. J. Firth, K. Smith, Opt. Commun. 102, 324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

Evangelides, S. G.

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Favre, F.

F. Favre, D. LeGuen, M. L. Moulinard, Electron. Lett. 31, 1600 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Firth, W. J.

N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, W. J. Firth, K. Smith, Opt. Commun. 102, 324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Forysiak, W.

Gordon, J. P.

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, G. T.

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, A.

Jeanney, E.

G. Aubin, E. Jeanney, T. Montalant, J. Moulu, F. Pirio, J.-B. Thomine, presented at the Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, IOOC'95, Hong Kong, June 26–30, 1995.

Knox, F. M.

Kodama, Y.

Kumar, S.

LeGuen, D.

F. Favre, D. LeGuen, M. L. Moulinard, Electron. Lett. 31, 1600 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lichtman, E.

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Montalant, T.

G. Aubin, E. Jeanney, T. Montalant, J. Moulu, F. Pirio, J.-B. Thomine, presented at the Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, IOOC'95, Hong Kong, June 26–30, 1995.

Moulinard, M. L.

F. Favre, D. LeGuen, M. L. Moulinard, Electron. Lett. 31, 1600 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moulu, J.

G. Aubin, E. Jeanney, T. Montalant, J. Moulu, F. Pirio, J.-B. Thomine, presented at the Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, IOOC'95, Hong Kong, June 26–30, 1995.

Nakazawa, M.

K. Suzuki, M. Nakazawa, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neubelt, M. J.

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pirio, F.

G. Aubin, E. Jeanney, T. Montalant, J. Moulu, F. Pirio, J.-B. Thomine, presented at the Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, IOOC'95, Hong Kong, June 26–30, 1995.

Smith, K.

N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, W. J. Firth, K. Smith, Opt. Commun. 102, 324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. J.

N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, W. J. Firth, K. Smith, Opt. Commun. 102, 324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, M. Nakazawa, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thomine, J.-B.

G. Aubin, E. Jeanney, T. Montalant, J. Moulu, F. Pirio, J.-B. Thomine, presented at the Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, IOOC'95, Hong Kong, June 26–30, 1995.

Electron. Lett. (2)

F. Favre, D. LeGuen, M. L. Moulinard, Electron. Lett. 31, 1600 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. J. Smith, K. J. Blow, W. J. Firth, K. Smith, Opt. Commun. 102, 324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

K. Suzuki, M. Nakazawa, Opt. Fiber Technol. 1, 289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

G. Aubin, E. Jeanney, T. Montalant, J. Moulu, F. Pirio, J.-B. Thomine, presented at the Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, IOOC'95, Hong Kong, June 26–30, 1995.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Synchronous modulator position ZR versus channel separation Δλk1 in a 20-Gbit/s system, after Eq. (3), with collision numbers p = 1 … 10 as parameters. Graphic solutions for WDM synchronicity are given by the intercepts shown: fixed wavelength spacing yields solutions in ZR (dashed lines); fixed modulator position yields solutions in Δλk1 (solid lines).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength-mapping rule providing synchronization at each modulator spacing ZR of wavelength-division multiplexed channels at wavelengths λ1, λ1, …, λk, with the notations used in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical Q factor as a function of distance in 4 × 10 Gbit/s WDM transmission (channels A–D), without (NR) and with (R) synchronous in-line regeneration. Insets show eye diagrams at 20,000-km distance (R case).

Equations (9)

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τ ( λ k ) = τ ( λ 0 ) + 1 2 ( d D d λ ) λ 0 ( λ k λ 0 ) 2 + 1 6 ( d 2 D d λ 2 ) λ 0 ( λ k λ 0 ) 3 ,
δ τ k 1 = Z R 2 [ D 0 ( Δ λ k 0 2 Δ λ 10 2 ) + D 0 ( Δ λ k 0 3 Δ λ 10 3 ) / 3 ] Z R 2 [ D 0 f k 1 + D 0 g k 1 ) ,
Z R = p 2 T bit D 0 f k 1 + D 0 g k 1 .
Δ λ k 1 ( p ) Δ λ 10 [ ( 1 + p 2 T bit Z R D 0 Δ λ 10 2 ) 1 / 2 1 ] .
Δ λ 10 = 1 2 ( T bit Z R D 0 ) 1 / 2 ,
Δ λ Δ λ 21 ( 1 ) = 2 Δ λ 10 = ( T bit Z R D 0 ) 1 / 2 ,
λ 0 , eff = k = 1 N Δ L k λ 0 k D ( λ 0 k ) / k = 1 N Δ L k D ( λ 0 k ) ,
D 0 , eff = k = 1 N Δ L k D ( λ 0 k ) / k = 1 N Δ L k ,
δ τ k 1 = τ ( λ k , L ) τ ( λ 0 , eff , L ) = ( L / 2 ) Δ λ k 1 ( Δ λ k 1 + 2 Δ λ 10 , eff ) D 0 , eff ,

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