Abstract

We report what are to our knowledge the first continuous observations of optical fiber solitons and nonsoliton pulses in the spectral domain. Using a novel optical time-resolved spectral reflectometer that measures the backscattered light spectrum, we directly observed (with 200-m spatial resolution) the propagation of ∼8.5-ps solitons and nonsolitons traveling down 5-km fibers. Spectral breathing and the recovery of the original spectral widths are clearly seen for higher-order solitons. Possible applications include in situ measurements of soliton parameters, fiber dispersions, and nonlinearities, experimental verifications of pulse propagation theories, and optical sensing.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).
  2. A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, Solitons in Optical Communications (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1995).
  3. J. P. Hamaide, E. Brun, O. Audouin, B. Biotteau, Opt. Lett. 19, 25 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Levanon, S. R. Friberg, Y. Fujii, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1179 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Healey, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 876 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Aoyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Itoh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 862 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. R. Menyuk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 392 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. S. Kim, R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. W. Quoi, Opt. Lett. 19, 257 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. F. Mollenauer, in Optical Solitons—Theory and Experiment, J. R. Taylor, ed., Vol. 10 of Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), Chap. 2, p. 34.

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

P. Healey, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 876 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

K. Aoyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Itoh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 862 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).

Aoyama, K.

K. Aoyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Itoh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 862 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Audouin, O.

Biotteau, B.

Brun, E.

Friberg, S. R.

Fujii, Y.

Hamaide, J. P.

Hasegawa, A.

A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, Solitons in Optical Communications (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1995).

Healey, P.

P. Healey, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 876 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, T.

K. Aoyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Itoh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 862 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

Kodama, Y.

A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, Solitons in Optical Communications (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1995).

Levanon, A.

Menyuk, C. R.

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, in Optical Solitons—Theory and Experiment, J. R. Taylor, ed., Vol. 10 of Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), Chap. 2, p. 34.

Nakagawa, K.

K. Aoyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Itoh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 862 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Quoi, K. W.

Reed, W. A.

Stolen, R. H.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

K. Aoyama, K. Nakagawa, T. Itoh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 862 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. Healey, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 876 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

L. F. Mollenauer, in Optical Solitons—Theory and Experiment, J. R. Taylor, ed., Vol. 10 of Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1992), Chap. 2, p. 34.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).

A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, Solitons in Optical Communications (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OTSDR. Pulses from a color-center laser (CCL) gated by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) are coupled to a 5-km optical fiber. Returning backscattered light is gated by a second acousto-optic modulator into an optical spectrum analyzer. GPIB, general purpose interface bus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral evolution of an 8.9-ps N = 1.8 soliton with an initial chirp of 0.4 in a 5-km fiber. Observed results are shown in (a), and calculated results are shown in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum evolution of a 7.8-ps N = 3.0 soliton with an initial chirp of 0.4 in a 5-km fiber. Observed results are shown in (a), and calculated results are shown in (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contour maps of the spectral evolution shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral evolution of an 8.6-ps N = 9.3 sech pulse in a 5-km fiber with normal dispersion. Observed results are shown in (a), and calculated results are shown in (b).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ret = E pulse r Δ t R S α R Δ L .

Metrics