Abstract

We study a new type of optical lattice in which the localized atoms experience a much reduced optical pumping and fluorescence rate. An optical standing wave is tuned to the blue of the F = 2 → F = 2 transition of the 87Rb D2 line and induces periodic optical potentials by coupling the F = 2 ground state to both the F = 2 and F = 3 excited states. A Sisyphus mechanism efficiently cools the atoms into the lattice sites. We adiabatically release the atoms from the optical lattice and measure their momentum distribution with a resolution of one third of a single photon recoil. This allows us to determine the population of the two lowest energy bands in the optical lattice (44% and 20%).

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 49 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. G. Prentiss, Science (London) 260, 1078 (1993); G. P. Collins, Phys. Today 46(6), 17 (1993), and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Grynberg, J. Courtois, Europhys. Lett. 27, 41 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Pellizzari, H. Ritsch, Europhys. Lett. 31, 133 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Guo, P. Bermann, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3225 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Hemmerich, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, C. Zimmermann, T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 37 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Kastberg, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. Spreeuw, P. S. Jessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1542 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Dalibard, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2023 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, Europhys. Lett. 14, 761 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taieb, P. Zoller, M. S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 93, 49 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Stecher, Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Innrain 52 (personal communication, December, 1995).
  17. R. Grimm, J. Söding, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, JETP Lett. 61, 367 (1995).

1995

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pellizzari, H. Ritsch, Europhys. Lett. 31, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Hemmerich, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, C. Zimmermann, T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kastberg, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. Spreeuw, P. S. Jessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1542 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grimm, J. Söding, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, JETP Lett. 61, 367 (1995).

1994

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taieb, P. Zoller, M. S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grynberg, J. Courtois, Europhys. Lett. 27, 41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. Guo, P. Bermann, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3225 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Prentiss, Science (London) 260, 1078 (1993); G. P. Collins, Phys. Today 46(6), 17 (1993), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 93, 49 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 49 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, Europhys. Lett. 14, 761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

Anderson, M. H.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermann, P.

J. Guo, P. Bermann, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3225 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castin, Y.

Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, Europhys. Lett. 14, 761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

Cornell, E. A.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courtois, J.

G. Grynberg, J. Courtois, Europhys. Lett. 27, 41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dalibard, J.

Dum, R.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taieb, P. Zoller, M. S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ensher, J. R.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esslinger, T.

A. Hemmerich, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, C. Zimmermann, T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 93, 49 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gerz, C.

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 49 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimm, R.

R. Grimm, J. Söding, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, JETP Lett. 61, 367 (1995).

Grynberg, G.

G. Grynberg, J. Courtois, Europhys. Lett. 27, 41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

J. Guo, P. Bermann, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3225 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.

A. Hemmerich, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, C. Zimmermann, T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 93, 49 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hemmerich, A.

A. Hemmerich, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, C. Zimmermann, T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 93, 49 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hulet, R. G.

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jessen, P. S.

A. Kastberg, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. Spreeuw, P. S. Jessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1542 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 49 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasapi, S.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasevich, M.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kastberg, A.

A. Kastberg, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. Spreeuw, P. S. Jessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1542 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lett, P. D.

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 49 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lounis, B.

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marte, P.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taieb, P. Zoller, M. S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, M. R.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moler, K.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ovchinnikov, Yu. B.

R. Grimm, J. Söding, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, JETP Lett. 61, 367 (1995).

Pellizzari, T.

T. Pellizzari, H. Ritsch, Europhys. Lett. 31, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W. D.

A. Kastberg, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. Spreeuw, P. S. Jessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1542 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taieb, P. Zoller, M. S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M. G.

M. G. Prentiss, Science (London) 260, 1078 (1993); G. P. Collins, Phys. Today 46(6), 17 (1993), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riis, E.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritsch, H.

T. Pellizzari, H. Ritsch, Europhys. Lett. 31, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, S. L.

A. Kastberg, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. Spreeuw, P. S. Jessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1542 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salomon, C.

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahriar, M. S.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taieb, P. Zoller, M. S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Söding, J.

R. Grimm, J. Söding, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, JETP Lett. 61, 367 (1995).

Spreeuw, R.

A. Kastberg, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. Spreeuw, P. S. Jessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1542 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stecher, H.

H. Stecher, Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Innrain 52 (personal communication, December, 1995).

Story, J. G.

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taieb, R.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taieb, P. Zoller, M. S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tollett, J. J.

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verkerk, P.

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weidemüller, M.

A. Hemmerich, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, C. Zimmermann, T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, D.

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, C.

A. Hemmerich, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, C. Zimmermann, T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoller, P.

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taieb, P. Zoller, M. S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Europhys. Lett.

G. Grynberg, J. Courtois, Europhys. Lett. 27, 41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Pellizzari, H. Ritsch, Europhys. Lett. 31, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, Europhys. Lett. 14, 761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

JETP Lett.

R. Grimm, J. Söding, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, JETP Lett. 61, 367 (1995).

Opt. Commun.

T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 93, 49 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

P. Marte, R. Dum, R. Taieb, P. Zoller, M. S. Shahriar, M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4826 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guo, P. Bermann, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3225 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Hemmerich, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, C. Zimmermann, T. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, J. G. Story, J. J. Tollett, R. G. Hulet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1344 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kastberg, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, R. Spreeuw, P. S. Jessen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1542 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Verkerk, B. Lounis, C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3861 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Jessen, C. Gerz, P. D. Lett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 49 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich, D. Weiss, E. Riis, K. Moler, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2297 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

M. G. Prentiss, Science (London) 260, 1078 (1993); G. P. Collins, Phys. Today 46(6), 17 (1993), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. Stecher, Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Innrain 52 (personal communication, December, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical potentials (left) and level scheme (right). The light shift is scaled in recoil energies Er = (ћk)2/(2M), where M is atomic mass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. The atoms are accelerated downward and then interact with the lattice field. The momentum distribution of the atoms is measured by detection of the fluorescence of the atoms in a sheet of light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-dimensional momentum distributions. Left, initial distributions; right, atoms released from the optical lattice.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Data points show the momentum distributions integrated along the py direction. (a) Initial distribution. (b) Atoms released from the optical lattice: 44% of the atoms are in the momentum interval −ћk < px < ћk, which corresponds to the population in the lowest energy band. The dashed curves represent thermal distributions that have the same mean kinetic energy as the measured distributions.

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