Abstract

We report on intensity-dependent switching in lithium niobate directional couplers. Large nonlinear phase shifts that are due to cascading detune the coupling between the coupler branches, which makes all-optical switching possible. Depending on the input intensity, the output could be switched between the cross and the bar coupler branches with a switching ratio of 1:5 and a throughput of 80%.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Schiek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1848 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Singh, in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, Supplement 2: Optical Materials, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Sec. 7.1, pp. 147–249.
  4. A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevinos, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 31, 549 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1292 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Schiek, M. L. Sundheimer, D. Y. Kim, Y. Baek, G. I. Stegeman, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, Opt. Lett. 19, 1949 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Schiek, Y. Baek, G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Baek, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, Opt. Lett. 20, 2168 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Schiek, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 415 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Schiek, Y. Baek, G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Baek, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, Opt. Lett. 20, 2168 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevinos, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 31, 549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevinos, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 31, 549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, A.

A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Baek, Y.

Bloembergen, N.

A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevinos, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 31, 549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Leaird, D. E.

J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, M. K.

J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P. S.

A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Schiek, R.

Seibert, H.

Silberberg, Y.

J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

S. Singh, in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, Supplement 2: Optical Materials, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Sec. 7.1, pp. 147–249.

Smith, P. W. E.

J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

Stegeman, G. I.

R. Schiek, Y. Baek, G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Baek, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, Opt. Lett. 20, 2168 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevinos, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 31, 549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Schiek, M. L. Sundheimer, D. Y. Kim, Y. Baek, G. I. Stegeman, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, Opt. Lett. 19, 1949 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundheimer, M. L.

Tapella, R.

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevinos, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 31, 549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Trevinos, C.

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevinos, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 31, 549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevinos, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 31, 549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vogele, B.

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevinos, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 31, 549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, B. Vogele, R. Tapella, J. U. Kang, C. Trevinos, G. I. Stegeman, Electron. Lett. 31, 549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, P. W. E. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1292 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Schiek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1848 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Schiek, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 415 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

R. Schiek, Y. Baek, G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Singh, in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, Supplement 2: Optical Materials, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Sec. 7.1, pp. 147–249.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temperature dependence of the normalized output of a NLDC for inputs of (a) 6000 W and (b) 1500 W. The smooth curves correspond to theory. sh, second harmonic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power dependence of a NLDC fundamental output for crystal temperatures of (a) 343.5 °C and (b) 344.75 °C. The smooth curves correspond to theory.

Equations (4)

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d A 1 d z + j β F ( z ) A 1 = j ω 0 [ ( J 6 A 1 + J 7 A 2 ) + 2 χ ( 2 ) J s 1 A 3 A 1 * + χ ( 3 ) J 1 A 1 A 1 A 1 * ] , d A 3 d z + j β SH ( z ) A 3 = j 2 ω 0 [ χ ( 2 ) J s 1 A 1 A 1 ] .
T = T SET Δ T P 0 . 35 K { 1 exp [ ( z / mm 25 2 . 733 ) 2 ] } ,
Δ T p / K = { ( 12 . 5 z / mm 5 ) 2 for z 12 . 5 mm 0 for 12 . 5 mm < z 37 . 5 mm ( z / mm 37 . 5 5 ) 2 for 37 . 5 mm < z .
β F = 2 π 1 . 32 μ m [ 2 . 222701 + 9 . 8 × 10 6 ( T / ° C 353 . 55 ) + 6 . 66 × 10 9 ( T / ° C 353 . 55 ) 2 ] , β SH = 2 π 0 . 66 μ m [ 2 . 223597 + 100 × 10 6 ( T / ° C 353 . 55 ) + 75 . 55 × 10 9 ( T / ° C 353 . 55 ) 2 ]

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