Abstract

We present experimental evidence that demonstrates a greatly increased depth of field in a broadband-illuminated imaging system through the use of a special-purpose phase mask and digital filtering. The phase mask is of a simple rectangularly separable cubic-phase design, whereas the digital filtering used was a simple object-independent least-squares inverse filter. We demonstrate successful operation of the system over a range corresponding to 30 times the Hopkins criterion for allowable misfocus.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Mino, Y. Okano, Appl. Opt. 10, 2219 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Ojeda-Castaneda, P. Andres, A. Diaz, Opt. Lett. 11, 487 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Ojeda-Castaneda, E. Tepichin, A. Diaz, Appl. Opt. 28, 2666 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, Appl. Opt. 34, 1859 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Brenner, A. Lohmann, J. Ojeda-Castaneda, Opt. Commun. 44, 323 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 747–754.
  7. J. van der Gracht, E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, J. P. Bowen, Proc. SPIE 2537, 279 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1995

E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, Appl. Opt. 34, 1859 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van der Gracht, E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, J. P. Bowen, Proc. SPIE 2537, 279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989

1986

1983

K. Brenner, A. Lohmann, J. Ojeda-Castaneda, Opt. Commun. 44, 323 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1971

Andres, P.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 747–754.

Bowen, J. P.

J. van der Gracht, E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, J. P. Bowen, Proc. SPIE 2537, 279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, K.

K. Brenner, A. Lohmann, J. Ojeda-Castaneda, Opt. Commun. 44, 323 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cathey, W. T.

E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, Appl. Opt. 34, 1859 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van der Gracht, E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, J. P. Bowen, Proc. SPIE 2537, 279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

Dowski, E. R.

E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, Appl. Opt. 34, 1859 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van der Gracht, E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, J. P. Bowen, Proc. SPIE 2537, 279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A.

K. Brenner, A. Lohmann, J. Ojeda-Castaneda, Opt. Commun. 44, 323 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mino, M.

Ojeda-Castaneda, J.

Okano, Y.

Tepichin, E.

van der Gracht, J.

J. van der Gracht, E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, J. P. Bowen, Proc. SPIE 2537, 279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 747–754.

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Commun.

K. Brenner, A. Lohmann, J. Ojeda-Castaneda, Opt. Commun. 44, 323 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. van der Gracht, E. R. Dowski, W. T. Cathey, J. P. Bowen, Proc. SPIE 2537, 279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1989), pp. 747–754.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of imaging system used in the experiment. The two lenses, L1 and L2, have a combined effective focal length of 50 mm. Incandescent lighting (not shown) illuminates the targets.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally generated images corresponding to (a) a clear aperture imaging system, (b) a cubic phase system with no digital processing, and (c) a cubic phase system followed by a digital filter.

Equations (3)

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P ( x ) = exp ( j α x 3 ) , α 20 , | x | 1 .
P ( x , y ) = exp { j mod [ α ( x 3 + y 3 ) , 2 π ] } , | x | 1 , | y | 1 ,
ψ = π L 2 4 λ ( 1 f 1 d o 1 d i ) ,

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