Abstract

Lasing images from two merging ink-doped ethanol droplets (size ~37 μm), which were generated by modulation techniques and pumped by nanosecond laser pulses, were photographed through a microscope. By measuring the size difference of two adjacent droplets from the spectral shifts of lasing peaks, we confirmed that mass transfer occurred in the breakup process of the liquid jet. We observed lasing images from merging droplets in a variety of patterns. Noteworthy among these is the lasing from snowman-shaped droplets that are conjectured to stem from coupled modes with orbits around both droplets.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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1995 (1)

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

M. Orme, E. P. Muntz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 279 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, R. L.

Arnold, S.

Biswas, A.

Campillo, A. J.

Chang, J. S.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Chemla, Y. R.

Chen, G.

Chýlek, P.

Eversole, J. D.

Fuller, K. A.

Ghaemi, A.

Go, C. S.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hendrie, P.

Hill, S. C.

Hsieh, W.-F.

Kim, G. H.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Latifi, H.

Lee, J. H.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. S.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-B.

Mazumder, M. M.

Moon, H. J.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Muntz, E. P.

M. Orme, E. P. Muntz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 279 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Orme, M.

M. Orme, E. P. Muntz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 279 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

Serpengüzel, A.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), p. 375.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement. We generate ampli­tude-modulated square pulses by electrically adding the pulses of period T (T pulses) and pulses of period 2T (2T pulses) that are deduced from T pulses. We control the degrees of modulation by changing the amplitudes of the 2T pulses. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses are synchronized to 2T pulses for stationary images. We minimize the astigmatism of spherical mirrors in the spectrograph with a cylindrical lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral images of ink-doped lasing droplets. (a) Image when the modulation is not involved. (b) The dominant peaks are divided into two shifted sets and the separation (d) of droplet pair decreases as the degree of modulation increases. (c) Image when the droplets merge. The * denotes the spectrum of the merging droplets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Selected set of CCD lasing images of (a), (b) a droplet pair and (c)–(f) a merging droplet through a microscope (inverted). PR, perturbed rims; CR, contact regions; E, polarization of the pump beam. It takes approximately one period (T) of the square pulse from touching to formation of a spheroidal disk.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Selected set of CCD images of a snowman-shaped droplet. (a), (b) Images between Figs. 3(b) and 3(c). (c) Schematics of individual orbits. (d), (e) Lasing images when the pump beam is incident at an angle of 20° with respect to the flow direction. (f) Schematic of an 8-type orbit. Counterpropagating signals are not shown.

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