Abstract

We show that frequency-resolved optical gating combined with spectral interferometry yields an extremely sensitive and general method for temporal characterization of nearly arbitrarily weak ultrashort pulses even when the reference pulses is not transform limited. We experimentally demonstrate measurement of the full time-dependent intensity and phase of a train of pulses with an average energy of 42 zeptojoules (42 × 10−21 J), or less than one photon per pulse.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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Errata

David N. Fittinghoff, Ian A. Walmsley, Jason L. Bowie, John N. Sweetser, Richard T. Jennings, Marco A. Krumbügel, Kenneth W. DeLong, and Rick Trebino, "Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses: erratum," Opt. Lett. 21, 1313-1313 (1996)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-21-16-1313

References

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1995

1994

V. Wong, I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 19, 287 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, W. Schafer, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

1989

1986

1973

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, J. C. Vienot, J. Opt. (Paris) 4, 183 (1973); J. Piasecki, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, C. Froehly, J. A. Arnaud, Appl. Opt. 19, 3749 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barthelemy, A.

Beck, M.

D. Smithey, M. Beck, J. Cooper, M. G. Raymer, A. Faridani, Phys. Scr. T48, 35 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, J.-Y.

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, W. Schafer, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J. A.

S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, A. Smirl, Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, W. Schafer, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chériaux, G.

Chilla, J. L. A.

Chu, K. C.

Cooper, J.

D. Smithey, M. Beck, J. Cooper, M. G. Raymer, A. Faridani, Phys. Scr. T48, 35 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

Faridani, A.

D. Smithey, M. Beck, J. Cooper, M. G. Raymer, A. Faridani, Phys. Scr. T48, 35 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Froehly, C.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, J. C. Vienot, J. Opt. (Paris) 4, 183 (1973); J. Piasecki, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, C. Froehly, J. A. Arnaud, Appl. Opt. 19, 3749 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, R. S.

Heritage, J.

Joffre, M.

Kane, D. J.

Kujawinska, M.

M. Kujawinska, in Interferogram Analysis, D. W. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1993), pp. 141–193.

Lacourt, A.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, J. C. Vienot, J. Opt. (Paris) 4, 183 (1973); J. Piasecki, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, C. Froehly, J. A. Arnaud, Appl. Opt. 19, 3749 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lepetit, L.

Liu, K. X.

Martinez, O. E.

Mycek, M.-A.

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, W. Schafer, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Patkar, S.

S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, A. Smirl, Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A. E.

S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, A. Smirl, Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M. G.

D. Smithey, M. Beck, J. Cooper, M. G. Raymer, A. Faridani, Phys. Scr. T48, 35 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

Salin, F.

Schafer, W.

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, W. Schafer, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sha, W.

S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, A. Smirl, Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smirl, A.

S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, A. Smirl, Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smithey, D.

D. Smithey, M. Beck, J. Cooper, M. G. Raymer, A. Faridani, Phys. Scr. T48, 35 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

Thurston, R.

Trebino, R.

Vienot, J. C.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, J. C. Vienot, J. Opt. (Paris) 4, 183 (1973); J. Piasecki, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, C. Froehly, J. A. Arnaud, Appl. Opt. 19, 3749 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

Weiner, A.

Weiss, S.

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, W. Schafer, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

White, W. E.

Wong, V.

J. Opt.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, J. C. Vienot, J. Opt. (Paris) 4, 183 (1973); J. Piasecki, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, C. Froehly, J. A. Arnaud, Appl. Opt. 19, 3749 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, W. Schafer, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Patkar, A. E. Paul, W. Sha, J. A. Bolger, A. Smirl, Phys. Rev. B 51, 10789 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr.

D. Smithey, M. Beck, J. Cooper, M. G. Raymer, A. Faridani, Phys. Scr. T48, 35 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Kujawinska, in Interferogram Analysis, D. W. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1993), pp. 141–193.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apparatus for SI measurements of the frequency-domain phase difference between two pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) FROG trace of the reference pulse used in TADPOLE experiments. (b) Reference-pulse measured spectrum (filled circles) and the retrieved spectrum (solid curve) and spectral phase (dashed curve) from the FROG trace. When a 128 × 128 grid was used for the FROG trace, the FROG algorithm produced a FROG error of 0.0038.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Apparatus for TADPOLE measurements of ultraweak pulses generated in an experiment consisting of 16 cm of fused silica used to stretch and chirp the pulse and attenuation by a factor of 109.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SI spectrum (solid curve) and the unknown pulse spectrum (dashed curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrum and phase of the unknown ultraweak pulse train measured with TADPOLE (filled and open circles, respectively) and with FROG (solid and dashed curves, respectively). Filled diamonds, calculated phase predicted by adding the phase change that is due to the known dispersion of quartz to the reference phase.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal intensity and the phase of the unknown ultraweak pulse train measured with TADPOLE (filled and open circles, respectively) and with FROG (solid and dashed curves, respectively).

Equations (1)

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I SI ( ω ) = I ref ( ω ) + I unk ( ω ) + 2 I ref ( ω ) I unk ( ω ) × cos [ ϕ unk ( ω ) ϕ ref ( ω ) ω τ ] .

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