Abstract

We demonstrate a quasi-electrostatic trap for cold Cs atoms, using a focused 20-W CO2 laser beam (λ = 10.6 μm). Excluding background gas collisions, we measure a trap loss rate of 0.30(33) atoms/s, which is consistent with the calculated photon-limited loss rate of 3 × 10−11 atoms/s. We measure a ground-state hyperfine population relaxation lifetime of at least 10 s.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995);M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995);M. Kasevich, E. Riis, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 612 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sackett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. Weiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Takekoshi, J. R. Yeh, R. J. Knize, Opt. Commun. 114, 421 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. A. Cline, J. D. Miller, M. R. Matthews, J. D. Heinzen, Opt. Lett. 19, 207 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Knize, Z. Wu, W. Harper, Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1988), p. 238;K. Ernst, F. Strumia, Phys. Rev. 170, 48 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (4)

W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995);M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995);M. Kasevich, E. Riis, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 612 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takekoshi, J. R. Yeh, R. J. Knize, Opt. Commun. 114, 421 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (3)

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sackett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. Weiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, C. S.

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995);M. Kasevich, E. Riis, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 612 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. H.

W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995);M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995);M. Kasevich, E. Riis, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 612 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cline, R. A.

Cornell, E. A.

W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995);M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sackett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. Weiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, N.

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995);M. Kasevich, E. Riis, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 612 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. B.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ensher, J. R.

W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995);M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harper, W.

R. J. Knize, Z. Wu, W. Harper, Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1988), p. 238;K. Ernst, F. Strumia, Phys. Rev. 170, 48 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Heinzen, D. J.

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzen, J. D.

Joffe, M. A.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasevich, M.

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995);M. Kasevich, E. Riis, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 612 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterle, W.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knize, R. J.

T. Takekoshi, J. R. Yeh, R. J. Knize, Opt. Commun. 114, 421 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Knize, Z. Wu, W. Harper, Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1988), p. 238;K. Ernst, F. Strumia, Phys. Rev. 170, 48 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995);M. Kasevich, E. Riis, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 612 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, A.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, M. R.

Miller, J. D.

Monroe, C. R.

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sackett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. Weiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myatt, C. J.

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sackett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. Weiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrich, W.

W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995);M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raab, E. L.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sackett, C. A.

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sackett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. Weiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takekoshi, T.

T. Takekoshi, J. R. Yeh, R. J. Knize, Opt. Commun. 114, 421 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weiman, C. E.

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sackett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. Weiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

R. J. Knize, Z. Wu, W. Harper, Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1988), p. 238;K. Ernst, F. Strumia, Phys. Rev. 170, 48 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. R.

T. Takekoshi, J. R. Yeh, R. J. Knize, Opt. Commun. 114, 421 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Takekoshi, J. R. Yeh, R. J. Knize, Opt. Commun. 114, 421 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

C. S. Adams, H. J. Lee, N. Davidson, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, E. A. Cornell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3352 (1995);M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995);M. Kasevich, E. Riis, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 612 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Monroe, E. A. Cornell, C. A. Sackett, C. J. Myatt, C. E. Weiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 414 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. J. Knize, Z. Wu, W. Harper, Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1988), p. 238;K. Ernst, F. Strumia, Phys. Rev. 170, 48 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured number of trapped Cs atoms as a function of time. The laser power is 18 W, and the focused waist radius is 100 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

QUEST atom loss rate versus background pressure at the ion pump. The trap loss rate extrapolated to zero background gas pressure is 0.30(33) s−1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio of the F = 4 population to the total population in the QUEST (N4/Ntot) versus time. The curve shown is an exponential fit with a time constant of 15 s.

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