Abstract

Conical emission in the forward direction is observed from intense femtosecond light pulses propagating through air over long distances. The conical emission is attributed to Čerenkov radiation from a dynamic self-guiding structure consisting of a weakly ionized core surrounded by Kerr cladding.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Lehner, P. F. Curley, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation and propagation of light bullets through atmosphere,” to be submitted toOpt. Commun.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1995 (1)

1994 (2)

M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, M. H. R. Hutchinson, R. A. Smith, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, Opt. Commun. 110,425 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Luther, A. C. Newell, J. V. Moloney, E. M. Wright, Opt. Lett. 19, 789 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25,2634 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

J. T. Manassah, M. A. Mustafa, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22,197 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

J. T. Manassah, M. A. Mustafa, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22,197 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

Auguste, T.

Bardsley, J. N.

Braun, A.

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, A. Braun, X. Liu, D. Du, G. Korn, G. Mourou, J. M. Elisondo in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 224.

Brun, A.

F. Salin, J. Watson, J.-F. Cormier, P. Georges, A. Brun, in Ultrafast Phenomena VIII, J.-L. Martin, A. Migus, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 55 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), p. 306.
[CrossRef]

Burgess, D. D.

M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, M. H. R. Hutchinson, R. A. Smith, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, Opt. Commun. 110,425 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, K.

M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, M. H. R. Hutchinson, R. A. Smith, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, Opt. Commun. 110,425 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chambaret, J. P.

Ciarocca, M.

M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, M. H. R. Hutchinson, R. A. Smith, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, Opt. Commun. 110,425 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25,2634 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormier, J.-F.

F. Salin, J. Watson, J.-F. Cormier, P. Georges, A. Brun, in Ultrafast Phenomena VIII, J.-L. Martin, A. Migus, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 55 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), p. 306.
[CrossRef]

Curley, P. F.

T. Lehner, P. F. Curley, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation and propagation of light bullets through atmosphere,” to be submitted toOpt. Commun.

Diels, J. C.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, A. Braun, X. Liu, D. Du, G. Korn, G. Mourou, J. M. Elisondo in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 224.

Downer, M. C.

Du, D.

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, A. Braun, X. Liu, D. Du, G. Korn, G. Mourou, J. M. Elisondo in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 224.

Elisondo, J. M.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, A. Braun, X. Liu, D. Du, G. Korn, G. Mourou, J. M. Elisondo in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 224.

Franco, M. A.

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Observation of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2 using nonfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” submitted toJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

T. Lehner, P. F. Curley, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation and propagation of light bullets through atmosphere,” to be submitted toOpt. Commun.

Georges, P.

F. Salin, J. Watson, J.-F. Cormier, P. Georges, A. Brun, in Ultrafast Phenomena VIII, J.-L. Martin, A. Migus, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 55 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), p. 306.
[CrossRef]

Golub, I.

Grillon, G.

C. Le Blanc, G. Grillon, J. P. Chambaret, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, Opt. Lett. 18, 140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Observation of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2 using nonfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” submitted toJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

T. Lehner, P. F. Curley, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation and propagation of light bullets through atmosphere,” to be submitted toOpt. Commun.

Ho, P. P.

J. T. Manassah, M. A. Mustafa, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22,197 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, M. H. R. Hutchinson, R. A. Smith, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, Opt. Commun. 110,425 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, A. Braun, X. Liu, D. Du, G. Korn, G. Mourou, J. M. Elisondo in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 224.

Le Blanc, C.

Le Blanc, S. P.

Lehner, T.

T. Lehner, P. F. Curley, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation and propagation of light bullets through atmosphere,” to be submitted toOpt. Commun.

Liu, X.

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, A. Braun, X. Liu, D. Du, G. Korn, G. Mourou, J. M. Elisondo in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 224.

Lompré, L. A.

Luther, G. G.

Mainfray, G.

Manassah, J. T.

J. T. Manassah, M. A. Mustafa, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22,197 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Manus, C.

Marangos, J. P.

M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, M. H. R. Hutchinson, R. A. Smith, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, Opt. Commun. 110,425 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

Mitchell, D. J.

Moloney, J. V.

Monot, P.

Mourou, G.

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, A. Braun, X. Liu, D. Du, G. Korn, G. Mourou, J. M. Elisondo in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 224.

Mustafa, M. A.

J. T. Manassah, M. A. Mustafa, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22,197 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

T. Lehner, P. F. Curley, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation and propagation of light bullets through atmosphere,” to be submitted toOpt. Commun.

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Observation of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2 using nonfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” submitted toJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Newell, A. C.

Nibbering, E. T. J.

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Observation of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2 using nonfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” submitted toJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

T. Lehner, P. F. Curley, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation and propagation of light bullets through atmosphere,” to be submitted toOpt. Commun.

Penetrante, B. M.

Prade, B. S.

T. Lehner, P. F. Curley, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation and propagation of light bullets through atmosphere,” to be submitted toOpt. Commun.

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Observation of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2 using nonfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” submitted toJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

Rae, S. C.

M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, M. H. R. Hutchinson, R. A. Smith, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, Opt. Commun. 110,425 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, C.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25,2634 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

F. Salin, J. Watson, J.-F. Cormier, P. Georges, A. Brun, in Ultrafast Phenomena VIII, J.-L. Martin, A. Migus, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 55 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), p. 306.
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

Siders, C. W.

Silberberg, Y.

Smith, R. A.

M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, M. H. R. Hutchinson, R. A. Smith, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, Opt. Commun. 110,425 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

Squier, J.

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, J.

F. Salin, J. Watson, J.-F. Cormier, P. Georges, A. Brun, in Ultrafast Phenomena VIII, J.-L. Martin, A. Migus, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 55 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), p. 306.
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. M.

Wright, E. M.

Zhao, X. M.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, A. Braun, X. Liu, D. Du, G. Korn, G. Mourou, J. M. Elisondo in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 224.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (2)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25,2634 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Manassah, M. A. Mustafa, R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22,197 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, M. H. R. Hutchinson, R. A. Smith, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, Opt. Commun. 110,425 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Observation of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2 using nonfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” submitted toJ. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

F. Salin, J. Watson, J.-F. Cormier, P. Georges, A. Brun, in Ultrafast Phenomena VIII, J.-L. Martin, A. Migus, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 55 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), p. 306.
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, A. Braun, X. Liu, D. Du, G. Korn, G. Mourou, J. M. Elisondo in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, P. F. Barbara, W. H. Knox, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 60 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 224.

T. Lehner, P. F. Curley, E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, “Formation and propagation of light bullets through atmosphere,” to be submitted toOpt. Commun.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the different stages of the filamentation process. The enlarged section of the filament shows the proposed antiguiding structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-shot spectrum of the filament 30 m after the onset of filamentation, taken at different monochromator settings. The complete filament spectrum is recorded in sections, each section extending over 120 nm. The data have been corrected for monochromator and detector response.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Upper plot, measured angle Θ (λ) of the conical emission as a function of wavelength λ. Lower plot, wavelength dependence of the normal refractive index of air n(λ) and of the product n(λ)cos Θ (λ).

Plate I.
Plate I.

Photograph of the weakly diverging conical emission recorded at a distance of 30 m after the onset of filamentation. The diameter of the outer (green) ring is approximately 10 cm. Note the decrease of emission wavelength with increasing distance from the center. This ordering is the opposite of that observed in normal diffraction.

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