Abstract

We use a scanning near-field optical microscope in illumination mode with a metal-coated optical-fiber tip to write, at ambient conditions, nanolines on triglycine sulfate ferroelectric surfaces. Our experiments show that, in spite of the cutoff, the outcoming light intensity is sufficient to modify locally the triglycine sulfate surface. We present images that show that, with this method, linewidths as small as 60 nm can be achieved that are stable over several days.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Abbe, Schulzes Archiv Mikr. Anat. 9, 413 (1873).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991);E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 257, 189 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds., Near-Field Optics, Vol. 242 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), p. 7.
  5. G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Optical microscopy and lithography in the near field: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).
  6. R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Nakatani, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 39, 741 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. García, A. P. Levanyuk, J. Massanell, J. Przeslawski, A. Zlatkin, J. L. Costa-Krämer, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structure branching and large step mobility on the TGS surface by AFM and SNOM,” Ferroelectrics (to be published).
  9. This may be due to low signal-to-noise ratio; or the small lines may be not topographical structure but possibly written charge-distribution inhomogenities.
  10. P. Wurfel, I. P. Batra, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5126 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1992

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991);E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1975

N. Nakatani, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 39, 741 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

P. Wurfel, I. P. Batra, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5126 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1873

E. Abbe, Schulzes Archiv Mikr. Anat. 9, 413 (1873).
[CrossRef]

Abbe, E.

E. Abbe, Schulzes Archiv Mikr. Anat. 9, 413 (1873).
[CrossRef]

Batra, I. P.

P. Wurfel, I. P. Batra, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5126 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991);E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielefeldt, H.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Optical microscopy and lithography in the near field: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Chen, Y.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Costa-Krämer, J. L.

N. García, A. P. Levanyuk, J. Massanell, J. Przeslawski, A. Zlatkin, J. L. Costa-Krämer, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structure branching and large step mobility on the TGS surface by AFM and SNOM,” Ferroelectrics (to be published).

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

García, N.

N. García, A. P. Levanyuk, J. Massanell, J. Przeslawski, A. Zlatkin, J. L. Costa-Krämer, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structure branching and large step mobility on the TGS surface by AFM and SNOM,” Ferroelectrics (to be published).

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991);E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirsch, A.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Optical microscopy and lithography in the near field: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991);E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausch, G.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Optical microscopy and lithography in the near field: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Levanyuk, A. P.

N. García, A. P. Levanyuk, J. Massanell, J. Przeslawski, A. Zlatkin, J. L. Costa-Krämer, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structure branching and large step mobility on the TGS surface by AFM and SNOM,” Ferroelectrics (to be published).

Massanell, J.

N. García, A. P. Levanyuk, J. Massanell, J. Przeslawski, A. Zlatkin, J. L. Costa-Krämer, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structure branching and large step mobility on the TGS surface by AFM and SNOM,” Ferroelectrics (to be published).

Meiners, J. C.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Optical microscopy and lithography in the near field: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Mlynek, J.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Optical microscopy and lithography in the near field: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Nakatani, N.

N. Nakatani, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 39, 741 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Przeslawski, J.

N. García, A. P. Levanyuk, J. Massanell, J. Przeslawski, A. Zlatkin, J. L. Costa-Krämer, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structure branching and large step mobility on the TGS surface by AFM and SNOM,” Ferroelectrics (to be published).

Toledo-Crow, R.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991);E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaez-Iravani, M.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wegscheider, S.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Optical microscopy and lithography in the near field: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991);E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wurfel, P.

P. Wurfel, I. P. Batra, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5126 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. C.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zlatkin, A.

N. García, A. P. Levanyuk, J. Massanell, J. Przeslawski, A. Zlatkin, J. L. Costa-Krämer, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structure branching and large step mobility on the TGS surface by AFM and SNOM,” Ferroelectrics (to be published).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

N. Nakatani, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 39, 741 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. Wurfel, I. P. Batra, Phys. Rev. B 8, 5126 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Schulzes Archiv Mikr. Anat.

E. Abbe, Schulzes Archiv Mikr. Anat. 9, 413 (1873).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991);E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds., Near-Field Optics, Vol. 242 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), p. 7.

G. Krausch, S. Wegscheider, A. Kirsch, H. Bielefeldt, J. C. Meiners, J. Mlynek, “Optical microscopy and lithography in the near field: a comparison,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

N. García, A. P. Levanyuk, J. Massanell, J. Przeslawski, A. Zlatkin, J. L. Costa-Krämer, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structure branching and large step mobility on the TGS surface by AFM and SNOM,” Ferroelectrics (to be published).

This may be due to low signal-to-noise ratio; or the small lines may be not topographical structure but possibly written charge-distribution inhomogenities.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Shear-force topographical image of nanolines in a TGS surface. The dashed line indicates the position of the cross section shown in (b). Notice the three steps clearly seen in the micrograph. The mean step height corresponds to the height of two unit cells (2 nm × 1.26 nm) also seen in cross section (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Shear-force topographical image of vertical nanolines in a TGS surface. The dashed line indicates the position of the cross section shown in (b). Notice the double step at x ≈ 3.2 μm from the upper left to the bottom right.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thick lines on the micrometer scale: (a) shear-force topographical image in a three-dimensional presentation, (b) optical image measured in reflection.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Directly Measured (Averaged) and Deconvolved Linewidth Values of the Nanolines Shown in Figs. 1 and 2a

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