Abstract

The nonlinear transmission of tetrabenzporphyrin dissolved in tetrahydrofuran was measured with the Z-scan technique at 532 nm with nanosecond pulses. The excited-state absorption cross section, the excited-state refractive-index cross section, and the linear and nonlinear absorption contributing to a thermal index change have been determined. To our knowledge, the excited-state cross section and its effective ratio to the ground-state cross section are the largest values reported to date.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, J. F. Roach, D. E. Remy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1241 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Guha, K. Kang, P. Porter, J. F. Roach, D. E. Remy, F. J. Aranda, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, Opt. Lett. 17, 264 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. The χ(3) values in Table I of Ref. 1 correspond to concentrations of ~1 g/mL, which are several orders of magnitude above the saturation concentration of our samples.
  4. J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, I. Choong, Opt. Lett. 19, 625 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, Opt. Commun. 109, 487 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1853, 1321 (1993).
  8. D. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 600 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 383.
  10. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992).
  11. T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, Appl. Phys. B 54, 46 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, Opt. Commun. 109, 487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, I. Choong, Opt. Lett. 19, 625 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1853, 1321 (1993).

1992 (2)

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, Appl. Phys. B 54, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Guha, K. Kang, P. Porter, J. F. Roach, D. E. Remy, F. J. Aranda, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, Opt. Lett. 17, 264 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, J. F. Roach, D. E. Remy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1241 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1969 (1)

D. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 600 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, D.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, I. Choong, Opt. Lett. 19, 625 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1853, 1321 (1993).

Aranda, F. J.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 383.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992).

Choong, I.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, I. Choong, Opt. Lett. 19, 625 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1853, 1321 (1993).

Coulter, D. R.

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, Appl. Phys. B 54, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dong, S.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, Opt. Commun. 109, 487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

Hagan, D. J.

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, Appl. Phys. B 54, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K.

Li, C.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, Opt. Commun. 109, 487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, K.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, I. Choong, Opt. Lett. 19, 625 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1853, 1321 (1993).

Marder, S. R.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, I. Choong, Opt. Lett. 19, 625 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1853, 1321 (1993).

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, I. Choong, Opt. Lett. 19, 625 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1853, 1321 (1993).

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, Appl. Phys. B 54, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perry, K. J.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, I. Choong, Opt. Lett. 19, 625 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1853, 1321 (1993).

Porter, P.

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

Remy, D. E.

Roach, J. F.

Said, A. A.

Sence, M. J.

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, Appl. Phys. B 54, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Si, J.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, Opt. Commun. 109, 487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

D. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 600 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, Opt. Commun. 109, 487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, Appl. Phys. B 54, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, Opt. Commun. 109, 487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, Opt. Commun. 109, 487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, Appl. Phys. B 54, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 383.

Yang, M.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, Opt. Commun. 109, 487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, Opt. Commun. 109, 487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, D. R. Coulter, Appl. Phys. B 54, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, J. F. Roach, D. E. Remy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1241 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 600 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, Opt. Commun. 109, 487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1853, 1321 (1993).

Other (3)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 383.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992).

The χ(3) values in Table I of Ref. 1 correspond to concentrations of ~1 g/mL, which are several orders of magnitude above the saturation concentration of our samples.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Low-intensity (linear) transmission versus wavelength for a solution of TBP in THF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Z-scan data and fits of normalized energy transmission through far-field apertured and unapertured cases versus z/z0.

Equations (11)

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d I d z = - α I - σ es N ( t ) I ,
d N d t = α I ω ,
d I d z = - α I - σ es α I ω - t I ( t ) d t .
T = ln ( 1 + q 0 1 + x 2 ) / ( q 0 1 + x 2 ) , q 0 = σ es α F 0 ( r = 0 ) L eff 2 ω ,
d ϕ d z = k d n d T Δ T + σ r N ( t ) ,
ρ C p T t = [ α + σ es α ω - t I ( t ) d t ] I ,
ϕ T = ( k ω 3 ρ C p σ es d n d T + σ r σ es ) ln [ 1 + q ( r , x ) ] + k F 0 ( r , x ) 3 ρ C p ( d n d T ) [ 1 - exp ( - α L ) 1 + q ( r , x ) ] ,
q ( r , x ) = q 0 exp [ - 2 r 2 w 0 2 ( 1 + x 2 ) ] / ( 1 + x 2 ) .
E nf = I in ( x , r , t ) exp [ i k r 2 2 R ( x ) ] exp [ i ϕ ( x , r ) T ] × exp [ i tan - 1 ( x ) ] ,
T = 0 r a 2 π R d R E ff 2 S 0 2 π R d R E ff m = 0 2 ,
T = 1 - q 0 ( 9 + x 2 ) ( 1 + x 2 ) × [ ( 3 + x 2 ) - 2 x ( 3 B + 2 σ r σ es ) ] ,

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