Abstract

Prompted by our expectation that even in a dense particle suspension there is a significant probability of straight paths through the particle field that permit the imaging of individual particles, we have been able to obtain real-time distinct images of small polystyrene spheres suspended in a transparent liquid under conditions when the sum of their scattering cross sections was 30 times the cross section of the signal wave. We replicated this new-found ability to observe particles inside a dense particle ensemble by employing a simple numerical model that imitates imaging of a point source of light through a layer of overlapping randomly distributed opaque disks.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

K. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 1019 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Liu, C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, T. J. Hanratty, Exp. Fluids 10, 301 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1974 (1)

H. Royer, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 87 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Adrian, R. J.

Z. C. Liu, C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, T. J. Hanratty, Exp. Fluids 10, 301 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Anderson, W. L.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Berg, R.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chap. 7, p. 166.

Chen, C.

Chen, H.

Delpy, D. T.

Dilworth, D.

Ennos, A. E.

A. E. Ennos, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Springer Series on Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 207–210.

Hanratty, T. J.

Z. C. Liu, C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, T. J. Hanratty, Exp. Fluids 10, 301 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chap. 7, p. 166.

Hussain, F.

Jarlman, O.

Landreth, C. C.

Z. C. Liu, C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, T. J. Hanratty, Exp. Fluids 10, 301 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E.

Liu, D.

Liu, Z. C.

Z. C. Liu, C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, T. J. Hanratty, Exp. Fluids 10, 301 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, J.

Meng, H.

Royer, H.

H. Royer, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 87 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J.

Sun, P. C.

Svanberg, S.

Valdmanis, J.

Vossler, G.

Xing, Q.

Yoo, K.

Exp. Fluids (1)

Z. C. Liu, C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, T. J. Hanratty, Exp. Fluids 10, 301 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nouv. Rev. Opt. (1)

H. Royer, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 87 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chap. 7, p. 166.

A. E. Ennos, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Springer Series on Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 207–210.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Imaging of (a) macro objects and (b) micro objects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image intensity I and image sharpness σ as a function of shadow ratio S: I (S) (curve A) and σ(S) (curve B) for the model with K = 1.27 × 104; I (S) (curve C) and σ(S) (curve D) for the experiment at K = 1.28 × 105.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Particle images at three different values of shadow ratio S: (a) S = 4, (b) S =6, (c) S = 8.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Particle images obtained through a spherical liquid–air interface at S = 30. The black rings in the white speckle background are particle images.

Equations (1)

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u m q ( x , y ) = G m q ( x , y ) exp { 2 π i [ ( x - x m ) η q + ( y - y m ) ξ q ] } ,

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