Abstract

We report continuous-wave tunable laser operation over the 635–637-, 605–622-, 517–540-, and 491– 493-nm wavelength bands in Pr3+/Yb3+-doped ZrF4 –BaF2 –LaF3 –AlF3 –NaF (ZBLAN) optical fiber. A single Ti:sapphire laser is used as the pump source. With as little as 60 mW of pump power launched into the fiber, laser output is obtained over the entire pump-wavelength tuning range of 780 to 880 nm. At a pump wavelength of 860 nm, we have produced output powers of 300 mW at 635 nm (760 mW of launched pump power), 45 mW at 615 nm (430 mW of launched power), 20 mW at 520 nm (200 mW of launched power), and 4 mW at 493 nm (200 mW of launched power).

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. For a review and additional references, seeW. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, Opt. Photon. News 3(3), 8 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, B. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 261 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1156 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. S. Quimby, B. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1055 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1012 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. C. Tropper, J. N. Carter, R. D. T. Lauder, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 886 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (3)

For a review and additional references, seeW. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, Opt. Photon. News 3(3), 8 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, B. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1012 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, B. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1012 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, K. W.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brierley, M. C.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, B. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, R. S.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. N.

Carter, S. F.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

A. C. Tropper, J. N. Carter, R. D. T. Lauder, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 886 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, S. G.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

A. C. Tropper, J. N. Carter, R. D. T. Lauder, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 886 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Humer, W. F.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lauder, R. D. T.

Lenth, W.

For a review and additional references, seeW. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, Opt. Photon. News 3(3), 8 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

For a review and additional references, seeW. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, Opt. Photon. News 3(3), 8 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Millar, C. A.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, B. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1012 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1012 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, B. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Silversmith, A. J.

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smart, R. G.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Szebesta, D.

A. C. Tropper, J. N. Carter, R. D. T. Lauder, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 886 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, B. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tong, F.

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

A. C. Tropper, J. N. Carter, R. D. T. Lauder, D. C. Hanna, S. T. Davey, D. Szebesta, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 886 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Whitley, T. J.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, B. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, B.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, B. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, B.

R. S. Quimby, B. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, B. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (6)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1012 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 27, 1156 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, B. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, Electron. Lett. 27, 1785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

For a review and additional references, seeW. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, Opt. Photon. News 3(3), 8 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative pump tuning curve for the green fiber laser. The launched pump power is 60 mW.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Side-light fluorescence spectrum of the Pr3+/ Yb3+-doped ZBLAN fiber used to demonstrate multicolor upconversion laser output. The pump wavelength is 860 nm. The inset shows Pr3+ transitions correlated with the fluorescence peaks and laser output wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two proposed upconversion pump mechanisms for filling the 3P upper laser levels of Pr3+. (a) Energy transfer from optically pumped Yb3+ to the 1G4 level of Pr3+ is followed by excited-state absorption of pump radiation on the 1G43P transitions. (b) A photon-avalanche process: cross relaxation between a Pr3+ ion in the 3P manifold and a ground-state Yb3+ ion is followed by energy transfer from the newly excited Yb3+ ion to a second Pr3+ ion. Cross relaxation thus yields two Pr3+ ions in the 1G4 state. Excited-state absorption by both Pr3+(1G4) ions concludes the avalanche cycle. Pump-driven radiative transitions are shown by the solid open arrows, and nonradiative energy-transfer transitions are shown by thin solid arrows.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance Summary of Upconversion Fiber Lasers

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