Abstract

We demonstrate a compact electro-optic polarization scrambler that depolarizes arbitrarily polarized light with less than 2.5% residual degree of polarization and variable depolarization times in the microsecond to millisecond range. The integrated-optic depolarizer is fabricated on lithium niobate and operates with a single-mode waveguide designed for a 1.5m wavelength. The scrambler introduces negligible intensity modulation of less than 1.6% in the depolarized output light.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  2. M. G. Taylor, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 5, 1244 (1993).
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  4. F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 654 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. S. Bergano, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper FF4, pp. 305–306.
  6. M. G. Taylor, S. J. Penticost, Electron. Lett. 30, 805 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. G. Taylor, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 860 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, R. Morin, R. Uhel, J. Artur, Electron. Lett. 30, 589 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, R. W. Smith, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1156 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. H. Billings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 966 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, Electron. Lett. 27, 377 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Heismann, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 690 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1153 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Noé, M. Rehage, C. Harizi, R. Ricken, Electron. Lett. 30, 1500 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1994

V. J. Mazurczyk, J. L. Zyskind, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Taylor, S. J. Penticost, Electron. Lett. 30, 805 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Taylor, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, R. Morin, R. Uhel, J. Artur, Electron. Lett. 30, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, R. W. Smith, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 690 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Noé, M. Rehage, C. Harizi, R. Ricken, Electron. Lett. 30, 1500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. G. Taylor, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 5, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, Electron. Lett. 27, 377 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 838 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1951

Artur, J.

V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, R. Morin, R. Uhel, J. Artur, Electron. Lett. 30, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Audouin, O.

F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bassier, G.

V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, R. Morin, R. Uhel, J. Artur, Electron. Lett. 30, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

N. S. Bergano, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper FF4, pp. 305–306.

Billings, B. H.

Bruyère, F.

F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 838 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D. A.

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, R. W. Smith, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harizi, C.

R. Noé, M. Rehage, C. Harizi, R. Ricken, Electron. Lett. 30, 1500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heismann, F.

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, R. W. Smith, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 690 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, Electron. Lett. 27, 377 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 838 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, R. W. Smith, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Letellier, V.

F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, R. Morin, R. Uhel, J. Artur, Electron. Lett. 30, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marmier, P.

V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, R. Morin, R. Uhel, J. Artur, Electron. Lett. 30, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marrone, M. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 838 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mazurczyk, V. J.

V. J. Mazurczyk, J. L. Zyskind, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morin, R.

V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, R. Morin, R. Uhel, J. Artur, Electron. Lett. 30, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Noé, R.

R. Noé, M. Rehage, C. Harizi, R. Ricken, Electron. Lett. 30, 1500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Penticost, S. J.

M. G. Taylor, S. J. Penticost, Electron. Lett. 30, 805 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rehage, M.

R. Noé, M. Rehage, C. Harizi, R. Ricken, Electron. Lett. 30, 1500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

R. Noé, M. Rehage, C. Harizi, R. Ricken, Electron. Lett. 30, 1500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. W.

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, R. W. Smith, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, M. G.

M. G. Taylor, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Taylor, S. J. Penticost, Electron. Lett. 30, 805 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Taylor, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 5, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uhel, R.

V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, R. Morin, R. Uhel, J. Artur, Electron. Lett. 30, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Whalen, M. S.

F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, Electron. Lett. 27, 377 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

V. J. Mazurczyk, J. L. Zyskind, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. G. Taylor, S. J. Penticost, Electron. Lett. 30, 805 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, R. Morin, R. Uhel, J. Artur, Electron. Lett. 30, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, Electron. Lett. 27, 377 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Noé, M. Rehage, C. Harizi, R. Ricken, Electron. Lett. 30, 1500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett.

F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, V. Letellier, G. Bassier, P. Marmier, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, R. W. Smith, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 1156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Taylor, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Taylor, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 5, 1244 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Mazurczyk, J. L. Zyskind, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Bruyère, O. Audouin, IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 6, 654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, A. Dandridge, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 838 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 690 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Other

N. S. Bergano, in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper FF4, pp. 305–306.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization-independent depolarizer using cascaded VWP’s: (a) schematic diagram, (b) trace of modulated output SOP on the Poincaré sphere for 45° linear input SOP, Ω2 = 4Ω1, and Ω3 = 0 (open circles and dashed curves denote the back of the sphere).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electro-optic implementation of the depolarizer on low-birefringent x-cut, z-propagation LiNbO3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for performance evaluation of the electro-optic depolarizer: HWP, half-wave plate; QWP, quarter-wave plate; DFB, distributed feedback.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured DOP versus angular positions of the HWP and the QWP: (a) dual-stage depolarizer with Ω1/2π = 10 kHz, Ω2/2π = 40 kHz, and Ω3 = 0; (b) three-stage depolarizer with Ω1 and Ω2 as above and Ω3/2π = 1.0264 kHz.

Equations (4)

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saw ( Ω t ) = { 2 Ω t / π - 4 n - 1 2 n Ω t / π 2 n + 1 - 2 Ω t / π - 4 n + 3 2 n + 1 Ω t / π 2 n + 2 ,             n = 0 , 1 , 2 ,
DOP = [ s 1 out ( t ) 2 + s 2 out ( t ) 2 + s 3 out ( t ) 2 ] 1 / 2 s 0 out ,
M = [ cos Φ 2 - sin Φ 1 sin Φ 2 cos Φ 1 sin Φ 2 0 cos Φ 1 sin Φ 1 - sin Φ 2 - sin Φ 1 cos Φ 2 cos Φ 1 cos Φ 2 ] ,
M = [ C 2 - S 1 S 2 C 1 S 2 - S 2 S 3 C 1 C 3 - S 1 C 2 S 3 S 1 C 3 + C 1 C 2 S 3 - S 2 C 3 - C 1 S 3 - S 1 C 2 C 3 - S 1 S 3 + C 1 C 2 C 3 ] ,

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