Abstract

The application of an unintensified charge-coupled device (CCD) to one-dimensional multispecies Raman flame imaging is demonstrated. Relative signal strength is improved by the higher quantum efficiency of the unintensified CCD versus an intensified CCD generally used for Raman imaging. Experimental comparisons of unintensified and intensified CCD systems show ∼40% improvement in the signal-to-noise ratios of major-species Raman signals for laboratory-scale H2 –air flames. The maximum possible signal improvement is limited by the 40% transmission efficiency of the ferroelectric liquid-crystal light valve used to gate the CCD, although the light valve is demonstrated to be unnecessary for low-luminosity flames.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995), p. 1159.
  2. S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, Opt. Lett. 19, 414 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  3. S. Farhangi, V. T. Gylys, R. J. Jensen, in AIAA Thirty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AIAA 94-0225.
  4. W. Reckers, L. Hüwel, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, Appl. Opt. 32, 907 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, Exp. Fluids 9, 241 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. J. Rakestraw, R. P. Lucht, T. Dreier, Appl. Opt. 28, 4116 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. I. Path, W. Meier, W. Stricker, Opt. Lett. 17, 79 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. A. Muss, R. W. Dibble, L. Talbot, in AIAA Thirty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AIAA 94-0612.
  9. K. Freudenberg, R. Mecke, Z. Phys. 81, 465 (1933).
    [Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, Exp. Fluids 9, 241 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1933 (1)

K. Freudenberg, R. Mecke, Z. Phys. 81, 465 (1933).
[Crossref]

Andresen, P.

Bilger, R. W.

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995), p. 1159.

Brown, T. M.

DeBarber, P. A.

Dibble, R. W.

J. A. Muss, R. W. Dibble, L. Talbot, in AIAA Thirty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AIAA 94-0612.

Dreier, T.

Farhangi, S.

S. Farhangi, V. T. Gylys, R. J. Jensen, in AIAA Thirty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AIAA 94-0225.

Frank, J. H.

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995), p. 1159.

Freudenberg, K.

K. Freudenberg, R. Mecke, Z. Phys. 81, 465 (1933).
[Crossref]

Grünefeld, G.

Gylys, V. T.

S. Farhangi, V. T. Gylys, R. J. Jensen, in AIAA Thirty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AIAA 94-0225.

Hanson, R. K.

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, Exp. Fluids 9, 241 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hüwel, L.

Jensen, R. J.

S. Farhangi, V. T. Gylys, R. J. Jensen, in AIAA Thirty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AIAA 94-0225.

Kychakoff, G.

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, Exp. Fluids 9, 241 (1990).
[Crossref]

Long, M. B.

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995), p. 1159.

Lucht, R. P.

Lyons, K. M.

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995), p. 1159.

Marran, D. F.

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995), p. 1159.

Mecke, R.

K. Freudenberg, R. Mecke, Z. Phys. 81, 465 (1933).
[Crossref]

Meier, W.

Muss, J. A.

J. A. Muss, R. W. Dibble, L. Talbot, in AIAA Thirty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AIAA 94-0612.

Nandula, S. P.

Path, I.

Paul, P. H.

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, Exp. Fluids 9, 241 (1990).
[Crossref]

Pitz, R. W.

Rakestraw, D. J.

Reckers, W.

Stårner, S. H.

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995), p. 1159.

Stricker, W.

Talbot, L.

J. A. Muss, R. W. Dibble, L. Talbot, in AIAA Thirty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AIAA 94-0612.

van Cruyningen, I.

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, Exp. Fluids 9, 241 (1990).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Exp. Fluids (1)

P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, G. Kychakoff, Exp. Fluids 9, 241 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Z. Phys. (1)

K. Freudenberg, R. Mecke, Z. Phys. 81, 465 (1933).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995), p. 1159.

J. A. Muss, R. W. Dibble, L. Talbot, in AIAA Thirty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AIAA 94-0612.

S. Farhangi, V. T. Gylys, R. J. Jensen, in AIAA Thirty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper AIAA 94-0225.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an unintensified CCD Raman system. LN, liquid-nitrogen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-pulse Raman spectra for stoichiometric H2 –air flame (ϕ = 1.0; 2100 ± 50 K) by use of (a) an unintensified CCD shutter only, (b) an optical chopper, (c) a chopper and an IR filter, (d) a chopper, an IR filter, and a FLC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Lean (ϕ = 0.5; 1580 ± 20 K) and (b) rich (ϕ = 2.0; 1800 ± 20 K) single-pulse H2–air flame Raman spectra by use of an unintensified CCD with the FLC.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman flame spectra for counterflow H2–N2 –air diffusion flame by use of an unintensified CCD without the FLC (200-shot integration).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relative Standard Deviations in Ensembles of 200 Single-Pulse Raman Signals from Various H2 –Air Flames for Intensified CCD and Unintensified CCD with a FLC

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