Abstract

A novel intracavity laser diagnostic has been developed to perform quantitative two-dimensional imaging of major species and temperature by using spontaneous Raman scattering and Rayleigh scattering in a turbulent flame. A flash-lamp-pumped dye laser cavity is modified to include sheet-forming optics and 100% reflecting end mirrors. In a comparison of this system with a laser configuration with the sheet-forming optics outside the cavity, the beam waist is comparable, while the intensity is increased by a factor of 5. This technique has applicability to many systems in which weak scattering must be monitored, such as Rayleigh scattering, Raman scattering, and laser-induced fluorescence of certain combustion radicals.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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1994

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 99, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, Combust. Sci. Tech. 86, 223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1985

1984

1983

P. H. Young, H. W. Latz, Spectrosc. Lett. 16, 471 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977

1967

Atkinson, G. H.

Barlow, R. S.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, Combust. Sci. Tech. 86, 223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barret, J. J.

Bilger, R. W.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 99, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, Combust. Sci. Tech. 86, 223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

R. W. Bilger, in Instrumentation for Flows with Combustion, A. K. M. P. Taylor, ed. (Academic, London, 1993), p. 1.

Cheesman, L. E.

Dibble, R. W.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, Combust. Sci. Tech. 86, 223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Frank, J. H.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 99, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

Hackett, C. E.

Harris, S. J.

Hill, R. A.

Kelly, J.

Kelman, J. B.

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

Latz, H. W.

P. H. Young, H. W. Latz, Spectrosc. Lett. 16, 471 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 99, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

M. B. Long, in Instrumentation for Flows with Combustion, A. K. M. P. Taylor, ed. (Academic, London, 1993), p. 467.

Lyons, K. M.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 99, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

Marran, D. F.

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

Masri, A. R.

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

Mulac, A. J.

Namazian, M.

Porto, S. P. S.

Schefer, R. W.

Stårner, S. H.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 99, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, Combust. Sci. Tech. 86, 223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

Stoeckel, F.

Weber, A.

Young, P. H.

P. H. Young, H. W. Latz, Spectrosc. Lett. 16, 471 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Combust. Flame

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, Combust. Flame 99, 347 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Tech.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, Combust. Sci. Tech. 86, 223 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Lett.

Spectrosc. Lett.

P. H. Young, H. W. Latz, Spectrosc. Lett. 16, 471 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. B. Long, in Instrumentation for Flows with Combustion, A. K. M. P. Taylor, ed. (Academic, London, 1993), p. 467.

R. W. Bilger, in Instrumentation for Flows with Combustion, A. K. M. P. Taylor, ed. (Academic, London, 1993), p. 1.

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration for intracavity Raman / Rayleigh imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stripe correctability of the Rayleigh data from a piloted, turbulent nonpremixed methane–air flame (Re = 21, 300). The measurements have been taken 25 diameters downstream (d = 6.1 mm) and were cropped to 8 mm in the axial by 30 mm in the radial directions. For this image, the rms modulation of the laser across the image is reduced from 17.8% to 1.2% in ambient air. The line plot adjacent to each image corresponds to a slice across the laser beam along the line shown. The Rayleigh intensity is represented by a linear gray scale, with lighter shades corresponding to larger values.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman / Rayleigh images from a piloted methane– air flame. The data were taken under the same conditions as in Fig. 2 and were cropped to 6.5 mm in the axial by 30 mm in the radial directions. The Rayleigh image is related to temperature, and the Raman image measures the number density of methane. Also shown are the calculated temperature, mixture fraction (ξ), and magnitude of the mixture fraction gradient (|∇ξ|) for this image pair. In each image, the scalar value is represented by a linear gray scale, with lighter shades corresponding to larger values.

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