Abstract

A new laser system for use of differential absorption lidar (DIAL) in measurements of tropospheric water vapor and temperature is introduced. This system operates in the 720 – 780-nm region and is configured as an alexandrite ring laser injection seeded by a cw Ti:sapphire ring laser. This combination provides for the necessary narrow-bandwidth, high-frequency stability and excellent spectral purity. A bandwidth of <5.0 × 10−3 cm−1, a frequency stability of 2.1 × 10−3 cm−1 rms, and a spectral purity of 99.995% at 726 nm have been achieved during extended periods of operation. A comparison of a DIAL water-vapor measurement with a radiosonde in the boundary layer between 500 and 2000 m was performed. The maximum deviation between the humidity profiles is 15%, the standard deviation 1.6%, and the difference between the mean values 1%.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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1994 (2)

1993 (2)

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, W. Renger, G. Simmet, Appl. Opt. 32, 4534 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Theopold, J. Bösenberg, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, P. Flamant, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1346 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, J. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Altmann, R. Baumgart, C. Weitkamp, Appl. Opt. 20, 995 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

Abo, M.

C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, K. Kimiyama, presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendai, Japan, July 25– 29, 1994.

Allen, R. J.

Altmann, J.

Ansmann, A.

Baumgart, R.

Bösenberg, J.

F. A. Theopold, J. Bösenberg, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, Appl. Opt. 26, 3026 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, Rep. 71 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1991).

S. Lehmann, V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bösenberg, presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendai, Japan, July 25–29, 1994.

Browell, E. V.

Bruneau, D.

Butler, C. F.

Cahen, C.

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, P. Flamant, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, J. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. F.

Cazeneuve, H.

Chyba, T. H.

Ehret, G.

Fisanick, G. J.

St. Schmitz, U. von Zahn, T. D. Wilkerson, D. F. Heller, J. C. Walling, G. J. Fisanick, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 5 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 462.

Flamant, P.

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, P. Flamant, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

Grossmann, B. E.

Heller, D. F.

St. Schmitz, U. von Zahn, T. D. Wilkerson, D. F. Heller, J. C. Walling, G. J. Fisanick, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 5 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 462.

Heuser, A. W.

Higdon, N. S.

Ismail, S.

Kiemle, C.

Kimiyama, K.

C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, K. Kimiyama, presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendai, Japan, July 25– 29, 1994.

Korb, C. L.

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, Appl. Opt. 22, 3759 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1346 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, S.

S. Lehmann, V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bösenberg, presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendai, Japan, July 25–29, 1994.

Loth, C.

Mayor, S. D.

McIlrath, T. J.

Mégie, G.

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, P. Flamant, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, J. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Mégie, Appl. Opt. 19, 34 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagasawa, C.

C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, K. Kimiyama, presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendai, Japan, July 25– 29, 1994.

Neale Mayo, M.

Pelon, J.

Ponsardin, P.

Renger, W.

Simmet, G.

St. Schmitz,

St. Schmitz, U. von Zahn, T. D. Wilkerson, D. F. Heller, J. C. Walling, G. J. Fisanick, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 5 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 462.

Theopold, F. A.

F. A. Theopold, J. Bösenberg, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

von Zahn, U.

St. Schmitz, U. von Zahn, T. D. Wilkerson, D. F. Heller, J. C. Walling, G. J. Fisanick, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 5 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 462.

Walling, J. C.

St. Schmitz, U. von Zahn, T. D. Wilkerson, D. F. Heller, J. C. Walling, G. J. Fisanick, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 5 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 462.

Weitkamp, C.

Weng, C. Y.

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, Appl. Opt. 22, 3759 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1346 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wilkerson, T. D.

E. V. Browell, T. D. Wilkerson, T. J. McIlrath, Appl. Opt. 18, 3474 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St. Schmitz, U. von Zahn, T. D. Wilkerson, D. F. Heller, J. C. Walling, G. J. Fisanick, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 5 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 462.

Wulfmeyer, V.

S. Lehmann, V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bösenberg, presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendai, Japan, July 25–29, 1994.

Appl. Opt. (10)

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, P. Flamant, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1346 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

F. A. Theopold, J. Bösenberg, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, J. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. Bösenberg, Rep. 71 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1991).

C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, K. Kimiyama, presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendai, Japan, July 25– 29, 1994.

St. Schmitz, U. von Zahn, T. D. Wilkerson, D. F. Heller, J. C. Walling, G. J. Fisanick, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 5 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 462.

S. Lehmann, V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bösenberg, presented at the 17th International Laser Radar Conference, Sendai, Japan, July 25–29, 1994.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of laser the system: FI, Faraday isolator; TFP, thin-film polarizer; PC, Pockels cell; L, concave lens; OC, output coupler; BF, birefringent tuner; OD, optical diode; P1, P2, principal planes of the thermal lens; M1–M3, mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nearly single-longitudinal-mode pulse and pulse with mode beating. The mode-beating frequency of 120 MHz corresponds to the longitudinal mode separation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of the interference fringes measured with a Fabry– Perot interferometer showing dual-longitudinal-mode lasing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of water-vapor DIAL and radiosonde. Start radiosonde 22:55 UT, start DIAL profile calculation 22:55 UT with an average time of 10 min, height resolution 75 m, laser bandwidth 5.0 × 10−3 cm−1, and no Rayleigh– Doppler correction. Pulse energy ≈50 mJ, on-line wave number 13 717.17 cm−1, off-line wave number 13 720.51 cm−1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Requirements for a Water-Vapor and Temperature DIAL Compared with the Specifications of the Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie DIAL System

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