Abstract

Continuous-wave ultrasonic modulation of scattered laser light has been used to image objects in tissue-simulating turbid media for what is to our knowledge the first time. The ultrasound wave focused into the turbid media modulates the laser light passing through the ultrasonic focal zone. The modulated laser light collected by a photomultiplier tube reflects the local mechanical and optical properties in the focal zone. Buried objects are located with millimeter resolution by scanning and detecting alterations of the modulated optical signal. This technique has the potential to provide a noninvasive, nonionizing, inexpensive diagnostic tool for diseases such as breast cancer.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1994 (1)

1993 (7)

B. Chance, K. Kang, L. He, J. Weng, E. Sevick, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 90, 3423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, R. C. Haskell, Appl. Opt. 32, 607 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Knuttel, J. M. Schmitt, R. Barnes, J. R. Knutson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 638 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1107 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Moon, R. Mahon, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 18, 1591 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Marks, H. W. Tomlinson, G. W. Brooksby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 500 (1993).

L. Feng, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 32, 554 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

1991 (1)

1990 (3)

S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, S. Svanberg, O. Jarlman, Opt. Lett. 15, 1179 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Barnes, R.

A. Knuttel, J. M. Schmitt, R. Barnes, J. R. Knutson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 638 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R.

Boas, D. A.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brooksby, G. W.

F. A. Marks, H. W. Tomlinson, G. W. Brooksby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 500 (1993).

Chance, B.

B. Chance, K. Kang, L. He, J. Weng, E. Sevick, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 90, 3423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Cheong, W. F

W. F Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

Dilworth, D.

Duck, F. A.

F. A. Duck, Physical Properties of Tissue; A Comprehensive Reference Book (Academic, New York, 1990), Chap. 5, p. 160.

Duncan, M. D.

Feng, L.

Fishkin, J. B.

Frank, G. L.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frey, A. R.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), Chap. A10, p. 461.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gratton, E.

Haskell, R. C.

He, L.

B. Chance, K. Kang, L. He, J. Weng, E. Sevick, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 90, 3423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

Hee, M. R.

Hielscher, A. H.

L.-H. Wang, D. V. Stephens, A. H. Hielscher, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, ed., Vol. 21 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.

S. L. Jacques, L.-H. Wang, A. H. Hielscher, in Optical Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995).

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, ed., Vol. 21 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 181.

S. L. Jacques, L.-H. Wang, A. H. Hielscher, in Optical Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995).

L.-H. Wang, D. V. Stephens, A. H. Hielscher, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, ed., Vol. 21 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.

Jarlman, O.

Kang, K.

B. Chance, K. Kang, L. He, J. Weng, E. Sevick, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 90, 3423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinsler, L. E.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), Chap. A10, p. 461.

Knutson, J. R.

A. Knuttel, J. M. Schmitt, R. Barnes, J. R. Knutson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 638 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knuttel, A.

A. Knuttel, J. M. Schmitt, R. Barnes, J. R. Knutson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 638 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E.

Lopez, J.

Mahon, R.

Marks, F. A.

F. A. Marks, H. W. Tomlinson, G. W. Brooksby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 500 (1993).

Moon, J. A.

O’Leary, M. A.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, V. G.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

W. F Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, J.

Rudd, J.

Schmitt, J. M.

A. Knuttel, J. M. Schmitt, R. Barnes, J. R. Knutson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 638 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sevick, E.

B. Chance, K. Kang, L. He, J. Weng, E. Sevick, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 90, 3423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephens, D. V.

L.-H. Wang, D. V. Stephens, A. H. Hielscher, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, ed., Vol. 21 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.

Sun, P. C.

Svaasand, L. O.

Svanberg, S.

Swanson, E. A.

Tankersley, L. L.

Tittel, F. K.

L.-H. Wang, D. V. Stephens, A. H. Hielscher, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, ed., Vol. 21 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.

Tomlinson, H. W.

F. A. Marks, H. W. Tomlinson, G. W. Brooksby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 500 (1993).

Tromberg, B. J.

Tsay, T. T.

Valdmanis, J.

Vossler, G.

Wang, L.-H.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, ed., Vol. 21 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 181.

S. L. Jacques, L.-H. Wang, A. H. Hielscher, in Optical Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995).

L.-H. Wang, D. V. Stephens, A. H. Hielscher, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, ed., Vol. 21 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.

Welch, A. J.

W. F Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weng, J.

B. Chance, K. Kang, L. He, J. Weng, E. Sevick, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 90, 3423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyman, D. R.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, G. L. Frank, Phys. Med. Biol. 35, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

B. Chance, K. Kang, L. He, J. Weng, E. Sevick, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 90, 3423 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

F. A. Marks, H. W. Tomlinson, G. W. Brooksby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 500 (1993).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Knuttel, J. M. Schmitt, R. Barnes, J. R. Knutson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 638 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, ed., Vol. 21 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 181.

S. L. Jacques, L.-H. Wang, A. H. Hielscher, in Optical Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995).

L.-H. Wang, D. V. Stephens, A. H. Hielscher, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, ed., Vol. 21 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 288.

D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 73rd ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1992), p. 6–114.

F. A. Duck, Physical Properties of Tissue; A Comprehensive Reference Book (Academic, New York, 1990), Chap. 5, p. 160.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), Chap. A10, p. 461.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of imaging of turbid media using ultrasound-modulated scattered laser light. The arrows between blocks represent electrical signals, and the arrows from the laser and from the cuvette represent optical signals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional image of a buried glass cube plotted on a logarithmic scale of the peak-to-peak voltage signals of the ultrasound-modulated light in millivolts. The holding wire on the top right and bottom left of the cube was observed at the same time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One-dimensional images of a black and a blue glass sphere obtained with the dc unmodulated laser-light signals and the ac ultrasound-modulated laser-light signals.

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